Tuesday, 25 February 2014
Sultan Muzaffar Shah II (1546–1570) was the second Sultan of Johor. He was known as Raja Muda Perdana before he succeeded the throne. He was installed to the throne of Johor in 1564 by the Acehnese upon the death of his father, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah II, who died shortly after he was captured and brought back to Aceh after the Acehnese invasion of Johor. Muzaffar II moved his capital to Seluyut in 1565 from Johor Lama to assert his independence from the Acehnese. He died in 1570 of poison and was succeeded by Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah I. PERSONAL LIFE He had three wives, which was not uncommon among Muslim rulers at the time. His first wife was Tun Mas Jiwa, daughter of the temenggung, Tun Hassan. His second wife was Tun Trang, daughter of Tun Ali, Seri Nara Diraja of Pahang and Tun Fatimah. Tun Trang bore him two sons, Abdul Jalil I and Raja Radin. His third wife was the former wife of Sultan Ali Jalla Abdul Jalil Shah II and daughter of Sultan Husain Ali Riayat Shah of Aceh.
Monday, 24 February 2014
Paduka Sri Sultan Mahmud Shah II ibni al-Marhum Sultan Ibrahim Shah was the 10th Sultan of Johor, Pahang and Lingga (1685 – 3 September 1699). Born in 1675, he was the last in line of a dynasty of the Sultanate of Johor (founded by his grandfather, Sultan Alauddin Ri'ayat Shah II) descended from the Sultans of Melaka (Malacca). As he was still a young boy when his father Sultan Ibrahim died (16 February 1685), Sultan Mahmud II reigned under the joint regency of his mother and the Bendahara Paduka Raja until the death of the latter (27 July 1697). He had several wives and is said to have slain any of them to have the misfortune of becoming pregnant. Perhaps this could have been the result of his fear that the birth of a son would enable rivals to depose him. After all, he himself came to power at a young age through a palace conspiracy that led to the poisoning of his father Sultan Ibrahim by his wives. Sultan Mahmud Shah II is famously known as "Sultan Mahmud Mangkat Dijulang". The name Mangkat Dijulang was given in remembrance of the way he was killed (mangkat being the Malay word referring specifically to a royal death) while being carried (dijulang) in a royal litter or dais. On his way back from Friday prayers, he was assassinated by one of his military chiefs. This military chief, Laksamana Megat Sri Rama (hailing from Bintan), was enraged The famous legend behind the murder of Sultan Mahmud Shah II is recounted in the 19th century Malay chronicle, the Tuhfat al-Nafis. Based on this story, he is mostly remembered for his decadence and cruelty, marking a shameful end to his dynasty. Sultan Mahmud was buried in a village near Kota Tinggi in Johor, which is still known today as Kampung Makam (Village of the Tomb). Legend has it that before he died, he lay a curse on Kota Tinggi, forbidding any sons of Bintan from entering the city for all time. After his death, his Bendahara (chief minister)Abdul Jalil declared himself the next Sultan of Johor. Upon ascending the throne, the new Sultan (Abdul Jalil IV) killed all the wives of Sultan Mahmud in order to avoid the possibility of any future claims to the throne. However, according to the Hikayat Negeri Johor (Chronicles of the State of Johor)and the Pahang Manuscripts, one wife, Che Mi, managed to escape to Minangkabau and gave birth to Raja Kechil. Less than two decades later in 1717, Raja Kechil would assemble a fleet from Minangkabau and succeed temporarily in ousting Sultan Abdul Jalil's successor Sultan Sulaiman and gain the Johor Sultanate, basing his legitimacy on the claim that he was the post-humous son of Sultan Mahmud Shah II. However, Bugis mercenaries that assisted him in this campaign changed sides and he was eventually forced to flee to Siak, where he founded a new Sultanate.
Sunday, 23 February 2014
These double strikes Gold coin were impressed on the obverse Sultan Alauddin II and on the reverse with his honorific title "KHALIFATUL MUMININ". As all the Johor Gold coinge have no date. THIS IS MY BEST COLLECTION
Abdul Jalil Shah III was the 8th Sultan of Johor who reigned from 1623 to 1677. Known as "Raja Bujang" before his accession, he was a son of the 6th Sultan, Alauddin Riayat Shah III and a niece of the 7th Sultan, Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah. Ruler of Pahang and Sultan of Johor-Pahang In 1615, Alauddin Riayat Shah III signed a peace treaty with the Portuguese Malacca, and as a sign of gratitude, the Portuguese recognized Raja Bujang as the ruler of Pahang, replacing the son of Sultan Abdul Ghafur. However, the appointment was not recognized by Sultan Iskandar Muda of Acheh, which later invaded Pahang and forced Raja Bujang to flee to the islands of Lingga. At the same time, the Achehnese also waged war with the new Sultan of Johor, Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah who was also forced to flee to Lingga. As the Achehnese attacks continued, Raja Bujang and Sultan Abdullah fled once again to Tambelan archipelago. When Sultan Abdullah died in 1623, Acheh reconcile with Raja Bujang and appoint him as the new Sultan of Johor and Pahang. Invasion of Malacca The strength of Acheh was brought to an end with a disastrous campaign against Malacca in 1629, when the combined Portuguese and Johor forces managed to destroy the fleet and 19,000 Achehnese troops according to Portuguese account. Johor later grew stronger and formed an alliance with the Dutch to attack the Portuguese Malacca and conquered it on January 14, 1640, ending the triangular war. The following year in 1641, Iskandar Thani of Acheh died and succeeded by Queen Taj ul-Alam. Her reign marks the beginning of decline of Acheh position as a regional power. In 1641, Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah III moved to the mainland Johor and established his new capital in Makam Tawheed. He spent two years of his reign in Makam Tawheed before he crossed the Damar river to establish his new capital in Pasir Raja (also known as Batu Sawar) in October 1642. In 1666, Jambi, a vassal of Johor Empire emerged as a regional economic and political power and decided to break free from the empire. Between 1666-1673, a civil war erupted and Jambi successfully sacked the Johor capital in Batu Sawar in 1673. Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah III fled to Pahang and made it as his administration centre for four years before he died in Kuala Pahang in 1677.
Sultan Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah Sultan Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah was the 7th Sultan of Johor who reigned from 1615 to 1623. Before he became sultan of Johor, Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah was also known as Raja Bongsu, Raja Seberang or Raja di Ilir. According to the testimony of Dutch Admiral Cornelis Matelief de Jonge Raja Bongsu was one of four surviving sons of Raja Ali bin Abdul Jalil (alias Raja Omar) of Johor. The other remaining male (half-) siblings were described by Admiral Matelief as Raja Siak, Raja Laut, and Alauddin Riayat Shah III. The latter ruled as the 6th sultan of Johor between the death of his father Raja Ali Jalla in 1597 and the Acehnese attack on Johor in 1613. In 1603 Raja Bongsu was instrumental in forging the early diplomatic relations with the Dutch by lending assistance to Admiral Jacob van Heemskerk on 25 February 1603 in attacking and plundering the Portuguese carrack, the Santa Catarina, in the Johor River estuary off present-day Singapore. He was also responsible for sending one of the first diplomatic missions of a Malay ruler to the Dutch Republic in the same year. Headed by Megat Mansur, the Johor embassy sailed to Europe on the ships of Admiral van Heemskerk in 1603. Megat Mansur did not survive the voyage, but other members of the Johor embassy did and returned with the fleet under the command of Admiral Cornelis Matelief de Jonge in 1606. In that year, Raja Bongsu formally ratified two treaties with the Dutch (dated 17 May and 23 September 1606) and signed himself as the co-ruler of Johor. He also lent active assistance to Admiral Matelief during his seaborne attack on Portuguese Melaka in or around May 1606. In early 1609 Raja Bongsu received Dutch Admiral Pieter Willemsz Verhoeff at Batu Sawar. On this occasion one of the German officers serving in Verhoeff's fleet, one Johann Verken, described the physical appearance of Raja Bongsu. He wrote that the Raja was "a young man in his 30s ... In his appearance and body a well-proportioned person, rather tall, articulate, and fair-skinned both on his body and on his face."  After the Portuguese had imposed an economically crippling blockade on the Johor River for much of the year 1609, Raja Bongsu was necessitated (through the machinations of his half-brother Raja Siak) to sign a peace treaty with the Portuguese Melaka in October 1610. Described as his personal "fiefdom" by Admiral Matelieff, Raja Bongsu controlled the settlement of Kota Seberang which was located almost straight across the Johor River from the royal administrative center and capital Batu Sawar. He is also said to have controlled areas around the Sambas River on the island of Borneo. In 1613, Raja Bongsu was one of the prisoners taken back to Aceh after the invasion of Johor by sultan Iskandar Muda. He was married to one of Iskandar's sisters, and returned to Johor as the new sultan. Raja Bongsu was subsequently enthroned as Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah of Johor. His half-brother Alauddin Riayat Shah III who had fallen from power at the time of Iskandar Muda's offensive on Johor in 1613 had fled to Lingga and probably died there in or around 1615. In 1618, Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah moved to Lingga and gained the support of Orang Laut and the Dutch to wage a war against Aceh. He later divorced his wife who was also a sister of Iskandar Muda, a move that further angered the sultan. He spent most of his reign as a wanderer, pursued from town to town and island to island by the Acehnese. He died at Tambelan archipelago on March 1623.
Ancient Coin : Sultan Alaudin Riayat Shah II - Johor Sultanate ( 1528 - 1564CE) This is a gold coin from Sultan Alaudin Riayat Shah era. He was the son of the last Malacca Sultan, Sultan Mahmud Shah who fled from Malacca after the invasion of Portugese. He became the first ruler of Johor Empire in 1527CE.he set up his capital at Johor Lama situated on the Johor river. He promoted foreign trade and was able to attract a fair amount of commerce. However Johor was captured by Acheh in 1564CE and became its vassal state until the collapse of the Acheh Empire in 1641CE. Octagonal gold coin ( kupang) under the rule of Johor Sultan Alaudin Riayat Shah II ( 1528-1564AD). Obv: Sultan Alaudin Rev: Khalifatul Mukmin weight : 0.53gm Dim : 12mm Rarity : RR ( ref SS2) Posted by HAJI MOHAMMAD RANI Labels: Ancient coins, antiquity, Coins from Johor 3 Variety Alauddin Riayat Shah II Sultan of Johor Reign Sultan of Johor (1528–1564) Coronation 1528 Died 1564 Place of death Acheh Predecessor Sultan Mahmud Shah (Malacca) Successor Sultan Muzaffar II Shah. Consort Princess Kesuma Dewi Issue Sultan Muzaffar II Shah. Father Sultan Mahmud Shah (Malacca) Mother Tun Fatimah Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah II was the first Sultan of Johor. He ruled Johor from 1528 to 1564. He founded the Johor Sultanate following the fall of Malacca to the Portuguese in 1511. He was the second son of Mahmud Shah of Malacca. Thus, Johor was a successor state of Malacca and Johor's sultans follow the numbering system of Malacca. Throughout his reign, he faced constant threats from the Portuguese as well as the emerging Aceh Sultanate. In 1529, Alauddin Riayat founded his first capital in Hujung Tanah, known as Pekan Tua, 11 km upriver from Kota Tinggi, following the death of his father. A river fort, Kota Kara was also founded down the river. In 1535, about 400 Portuguese troops led by Estavao da Gama invaded Johor. Kota Kara was bombarded but the Malays withstood the attack. After a few days, Portuguese troops landed and bombarded the fort but they also had to retreat. Their morale boosted by this initial success, the Malays left their fort and launched a counter-attack on the Portuguese. However, the Malays were scattered by the crossfire of the Portuguese which resulted in the capturing of the fort and its burning by the Portuguese. Alauddin Riayat retreated upstream the Johor River to Sayong Pinang. His official, Seri Nara Diraja, died in Sayong Pinang. Alauddin Riayat returned to Pekan Tua after a short period and rebuilt it. Pekan Tua was attacked by 400 Portuguese troops under Estêvão da Gama again because his brother, Paulo da Gama, and about 30 other Portuguese troops were killed by Malays. Following this attack, a peace treaty was signed between Johor and the Portuguese. In 1540, Alauddin Riayat Shah moved his capital to Johor Lama, which is closer to the estuary of Johor River. Johor was also threatened by Aceh, on the northern tip of Sumatra. In 1539, Aru, Johor's vassal state on the east coast of Sumatra, was attacked by a fleet of 160 ships with 12,000 soldiers, being Acehnese, Malaccan Malays,| Malabaris, Gujeratis, and Turkish. Alauddin Riayat gathered a fleet with aid from his allies, Perak and Siak, and attacked Aru in 1540. He reconquered Aru, leaving only 14 Acehnese ships afloat and thousands of Acehnese troops dead. The battle was called, Battle of Sungai Paneh, which was the most glorious Malay victory since they were defeated in Malacca. In 1564, the Sultan of Aceh, Alauddin al-Qahar, defeated Aru and expulsed the Johoreans from Aru. The sultan of Aceh, then, launched an attack on Johor Lama from Aru. The fort and town was leveled and Alauddin Riayat was captured and brought back to Aceh. He was later killed and was given the posthumous title, Marhum Syahid di Acheh. He was succeeded by his son, Muzaffar Shah II. Personal life He married Princess Kesuma Dewi of Pahang, the daughter of Mansur Shah of Pahang.
Tuesday, 11 February 2014
Tin doits of Batavia.Through lack od copper the mint at Surabaya was unable to supply a sufficiency of copper coins and in 1813 it was decided to start coining doits of pure tin at batavia.From now on apparently only copper half stivers were struck at surabaya.A proclamation of April 9.1813 announced that a quantity of tin doits of pure banka tin was to be struck at Batavia.Like the copper doits these were legal tender at the rate of 264 to the sp.$=66stivers for payment not exceeding sp.$10. As late as 1814 tin doits were still struck but in October of that year coinge at batavia ceased. DOIT IN TIN A large V between E-C,above 1,below 1813 Rev.*1*/DOIT/JAVA,BELOW * *REALLY WELL-PRESERVED SPECIMENS OF THESE COINS ARE NOW RARE REFERENCE : C.SCHOLTEN 613 & 614
Great Britain Trade Dollar 1895 to 1935 Size: large Description from requester: One Dollar and it has a woman warrior holding a staff and a shield with a ship in the background on one side. On the other side it has foreign language I think Persian and Chinese. Also it has decorations on the back. Great Britain Trade Dollar 1895 to 1935 | britain dollar great trade ship circle scroll staff flower helmet shield queen woman style i language warrior britsh britt brit 'Trade Coinage' is the name we give to coins manufactured by one country for use in another country. Great Britain and the US are two countries who manufactured trade dollars for use overseas. With Lady Britannia on the front, yours is from Great britain. These are large, valuable silver coins that contain 0.78 troy ounces of silver. Their base value, then, is 0.78 times the current price of silver. But their value exceeds base value due to their numismatic (coin collector) appeal. Here are catalog values for most of the British trade dollars in the series which ran from 1895 to 1935 (Note: to find out what 'catalog value' means, go to our Important Terminology page There are many ups and downs in values for this series of coins. There are, however, some particular dates and mint marks that really stand out as extra valuable coins. There appear in the list below, with the value corresponding to coins in average circulated condition. The mint mark 'C' can be found in the ground between the left foot of Britannia and the base of the shield, while the mint mark 'B' is located in the center prong of the trident. There are also proof coins in this series which are quite valuable, for several dates. Tags: britain dollar great trade ship circle scroll staff flower helmet shield queen woman style i language warrior britsh britt brit english british britan britian britaain brittish brittrex brilt dollars trading doller england dol uk brittain brittan escutcheon circles bloomed shiled circal scrolls shileld crrcle stem sailboat leis rings fleur lily japan clipper bud shied circlet staffs pedals blossom cicurling lilys flur warship chevrons helmit bouquet circlr boat floer sheild boats fleures circling flowers floral steamboat arabia circular circel shields fllower ships cirlces saling shelid outriggers sails lisse ringed scrolled vessel stems china circled scrollwork fler iran outrigger ashield folwers posy ring cirle flowery escucheon fleurs cirlce sail sailing asian female queens womans trident women ladies stylized ladys femal feminine queem females womens character lady princess lsdy empress wartrior languages warrier oriental japanesse chinese japanize arabian chin chian japenese iranian persian japanese japanise chineese chine characters thonged thong prongs logograms fork pitchfork ptichfork pittchfork pitch triton decoration
Monday, 3 February 2014
THE COIN FEATURED IS MINTED GOLD AND IS USED DURING THE REIGN OF SULTAN ZAINAL ABIDIN SHAH 11. THE OBVERSE SIDE OF THE COIN WITH NAME SULTAN ZAINAL ABIDIN SHAH 11 (1793-1808). INSCRIPTED IN JAWI THE REVERSE OF THE COIN IS DEPICTED WITH THE TITLE OF THE SULTAN AS "KHALIFATUL MUKMININ" IN JAWI -Sejarah Terengganu yang awal adalah tidak jelas. Namun begitu terdapat catatan mengenai Terengganu oleh saudagar Cina, Chao Ju Kua pada tahun 1225 yang menyebut sebagai jajahan takluk Palembang. "Negarakartagama", tulisan Prapanca dari Jawa pada tahun 1365, menyatakan bahawa Terengganu, Paka dan Dungun di bawah taklukan Majapahit. Berdasarkan bukti arkeologi seperti kapak batu dan tembikar yang dijumpai di Gunung Bewah, terdapat manusia tinggal di situ sejak 4000 SM. Pada Batu Bersurat Terengganu terdapat pula catatan nama Raja Mandalika. Seterusnya dalam sejarah Terengganu, terdapat pemerintahan bernama Megat Panji Alam dan juga Tun Telanai. Terengganu kemudiannya disebut sebagai negeri di bawah pemerintahan kerajaan Johor. Pada ketika itu, dua orang pembesar Johor, Laksamana dan Paduka Megat Seri Rama, dihantar memerintah Terengganu. Seterusnya, Bendahara Hasan pula dihantar mentadbir Terengganu. Berikutnya, Terengganu ditadbir oleh Tun Zain Indera, kemudiannya, oleh anak Tun Zain Indera, Tun Yuan, Tun Sulaiman dan Tun Ismail; Tun Sulaiman sebagai sultan di Pantai Layang ( Balik Bukit ), Tun Yuan sebagai Bendahara dan Tun Ismail sebagai Menteri Tersat. Pengasas Kesultanan Terengganu sekarang ialah Sultan Zainal Abidin I. Baginda yang juga dikenali dengan panggilan "Bendahara Padang Saujana" ialah putera Tun Habib Abdul Majid. Mengikut buku Tuhfat al-Nafis, karangan Raja Haji, Tun Zainal Abidin ditabalkan sebagai Sultan Terengganu oleh Daeng Menampuk atau Raja Tua di atas perintah Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah Johor. Sumber yang lain pula dinyatakan Tun Zainal Abidin ditabalkan di atas tahta Kerajaan Negeri Terengganu oleh Phra Chau Yang(Raja Perempuan Mas Cayam), Raja Pattani. Mengikut hikayat Johor serta Pahang, Tun Zainal Abidin datang ke Pattani setelah Paduka Raja Laksamana Wan Abdul Rahman dibunuh di Terengganu disekitar 1688. Ketika berada di Pattani, Tun Zainal Abidin dijadikan anak angkat oleh Raja Pattani, Phra Nang Chau Yang. Tun Zainal Abidin menjadi Sultan Terengganu pada tahun 1708. Ini berdasarkan duit kupang emas Terengganu yang mencatatkan nama Sultan Zainal Abidin dan tahun 1120 hijrah (bersamaan tahun 1708). Sultan Zainal Abidin I tidak lama bersemanyam di Tanjung Baru, Kuala Berang, berpindah ke Kota Batang Mahang, ke Langgar dan ke Pulau Manis. Kemudian berpindah lagi ke Chabang Tiga, Kuala Terengganu dan akhirnya di kawasan berhampiran Bukit Keledang (kini dipanggil Kota Lama). Sultan Zainal Abidin I digantikan oleh putera baginda, Ku Tana Mansur dengan gelaran Sultan Mansur I pada tahun 1733, ketika berusia 7 tahun. Baginda memerintah Terengganu sehingga tahun 1794. Pada tahun 1739, Sultan Mansur Shah I berkahwin dengan Raja Bulang anak Daeng Chelak, Yamtuan Muda Johor Kedua. Berikutnya, baginda berkahwin pula dengan Raja Bakul, putera Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah. Ketika menduduki takhta kerajaan Terengganu, Sultan Mansur I telah menghabiskan empat belas tahun (1746–1760) daripada masa pemerintahannya di Riau, terlibat dalam persaingan di antara orang Melayu dengan orang Bugis. Apabila pulang ke Terengganu pada 1760, baginda terlibat pula dalam politik Kelantan membantu Long Yunus, Putera Long Sulaiman Ibni Long Bahar, Yang DiPertuan Kelantan menduduki takhta kerajaan Kelantan pada tahun 1776. Sultan Mansur I digantikan oleh puteranya, Sultan Zainal Abidin II (1794–1808). Pada masa pemerintahan baginda, berlaku peperangan dengan Kelantan yang dipimpin oleh Long Mahammad Ibni Long Yunus, Raja Kelantan. Terengganu dikalahkan dan seterusnya Kelantan berjaya membebaskan diri daripada naungan Terengganu. Seterusnya takhta kerajaan Terengganu diduduki oleh beberapa sultan, termasuknya Baginda Omar. Baginda Omar pernah menduduki takhta kerajaan Terengganu pada tahun 1831 mengantikan Sultan Daud. Tetapi baginda diturunkan daripada takhta kerajaan oleh Tengku Mansur dan seterusnya sebagai Sultan Mansur II. Sultan Mansur II digantikan oleh putera baginda, Sultan Muhammad. Pada tahun 1839, Baginda Omar berjaya mengalahkan Sultan Muhammad dan seterusnya menduduki takhta kerajaan Terengganu. Ketika pemerintahan baginda, Terengganu berkembang maju. Apabila Baginda Omar mangkat, takhta kerajaan Terengganu diduduki oleh Sultan Ahmad Shah II (1876–1881). Sultan Ahmad Shah pula digantikan oleh putera baginda, Sultan Zainal Abidin III (1881–1918). Ketika pemerintahan baginda, British beberapa kali cuba melibatkan diri dalam kerajaan Terengganu. Pada tahun 1911, Sultan Zainal Abidin III meluluskan "Undang-Undang Bagi Diri Kerajaan Negeri Terengganu" yang di antara lain menyatakan Sultan Yang DiPertuan Besar Terengganu memiliki kuasa kerajaan dan jajahan serta adalah ketua tertinggi kerajaan Terengganu. Seterusnya takhta kerajaan digantikan oleh Sultan Muhammad Shah II (1918–1920) dan Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah (1920–1942). Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin, Sultan Terengganu ke-16 yang memerintah sekarang. Menurut "Warta Chahaya Timor No. 38" bertarikh 29 September 1942, apabila Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah telah mangkat pada 26 September 1942, Tengku Ali, yang dirujuk sebagai putera sulung baginda telah dilantik sebagai "Pemangku Sultan Sementara" oleh pihak pentadbiran Jepun pada 29 September 1942. Seterusnya Tengku Ali telah diberikan gelaran "Sultan" pada 30 September 1942 oleh Syuckokan atau Gabenor Jepun. Walau bagaimanapun perlantikan ini dinyatakan tidak menurut "Undang-Undang Diri Bagi Negeri Terengganu" 1911. Tengku Seri Paduka Raja, Tengku Ismail diisytiharkan sebagai Sultan Terengganu pada Ahad, 16 Disember 1945. Baginda seterusnya ditabalkan pada tahun 1949 dengan gelaran "Sultan Ismail Nasaruddin Shah". Sultan Ismail Nasaruddin dilantik sebagai Seri Paduka Baginda Yang DiPertuan Agong ke–6 dari 21 September 1965 hingga 20 September 1970. Dalam tempoh itu, Duli Yang Amat Mulia Tengku Mahmud dilantik sebagai Pemangku Raja Terengganu. Apabila Sultan Ismail Nasaruddin Shah mangkat pada tahun 1979, takhta kerajaan Terengganu digantikan oleh putera baginda, Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Yang Dipertuan Muda Tengku Mahmud. Baginda menduduki takhta kerajaan Terengganu dengan gelaran Sultan Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah. Sultan Mahmud mangkat pada 15 Mei 1998 di Singapura. Dengan itu, takhta kerajaan Terengganu digantikan oleh putera baginda, Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin. Kesultanan Terengganu 1708-1733: Sultan Zainal Abidin Ibni Tun Habib Abdul Majid 1733-1794: Sultan Mansur Riayat Shah I 1794–1808: Sultan Zainal Abidin Shah II, Putera Sultan Mansur I 1808–1830: Sultan Ahmad Muazzam Shah I, Putera Sultan Zainal II 1830: Sultan Abdul Rahman Shah, Putera Sultan Zainal II 1830–1831: Sultan Daud, Putera Sultan Ahmad I 1831–1837: Sultan Mansur Riayat Shah II, Putera Sultan Zainal II 1837–1839: Sultan Muhammad Muazzam Shah I, Putera Sultan Mansur II 1839–1876: Baginda Omar 1876–1881: Sultan Ahmad Muazzam Shah II 1881–1918: Sultan Zainal Abidin Shah III, putera Sultan Ahmad II 1918–1920: Sultan Muhammad Muazzam Shah II, Putera Sultan Zainal III 1920–1942: Sultan Sulaiman Badrul Alam Shah 1942-1945: Sultan Ali, putera Sultan Sulaiman 1945-1979: Sultan Ismail Nasaruddin Shah, Putera Sultan Zainal III 1979-1998: Sultan Mahmud Al-Muktafi Billah Shah 1998-2024: Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin P