Wednesday, 30 April 2014


History According to the 16th-century Portuguese historian Emanuel Godinho de Erédia, the site of the old city of Malacca was named after the Myrobalans, fruit-bearing trees along the banks of a river called Airlele (Ayer Leleh). The Airlele river was said to originate from Buquet China (present-day Bukit Cina). Eredia cited that the city was founded by Permicuri (i.e. Parameswara) the first King of Malacca in 1411. The capture of Malacca Further information: Capture of Malacca (1511) The news of Malacca's wealth attracted the attention of Manuel I, King of Portugal and he sent Admiral Diogo Lopes de Sequeira to find Malacca, to make a trade compact with its ruler as Portugal's representative east of India. The first European to reach Malacca and Southeast Asia, Sequeira arrived in Malacca in 1509. Although he was initially well received by Sultan Mahmud Shah trouble however quickly ensued.[1] The general feeling of rivalry between Islam and Christianity was invoked by a group of Goa Muslims in the sultan's court after the Portuguese had captured Goa.[2] The international Muslim trading community convinced Mahmud that the Portuguese were a grave threat. Mahmud subsequently captured several of his men, killed others and attempted to attack the four Portuguese ships, although they escaped. As the Portuguese had found in India, conquest would be the only way they could establish themselves in Malacca.[1] In April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goa to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships.[1] The Viceroy made a number of demands—one of which was for permission to build a fortress as a Portuguese trading post near the city.[2] The Sultan refused all the demands. Conflict was unavoidable, and after 40 days of fighting, Malacca fell to the Portuguese on 24 August. A bitter dispute between Sultan Mahmud and his son Sultan Ahmad also weighed down the Malaccan side.[1] Following the defeat of the Malacca Sultanate in 15 August 1511 in the capture of Malacca, Afonso de Albuquerque sought to erect a permanent form of fortification in anticipation of the counterattacks by Sultan Mahmud. A fortress was designed and constructed encompassing a hill, lining the edge of the sea shore, on the south east of the river mouth, on the former site of the Sultan's palace. Albuquerque remained in Malacca until November 1511 preparing its defences against any Malay counterattack.[1] Sultan Mahmud Shah was forced to flee Malacca. A Portuguese port in a hostile region As the first base of European Christian trading kingdom in Southeast Asia, it was surrounded by numerous emerging native Muslim states. Also, with hostile initial contact with the local Malay policy, Portuguese Malacca faced severe hostility. They endure years of battles started by Malay sultans who wanted to get rid of the Portuguese and reclaim their land. The Sultan made several attempts to retake the capital. He rallied the support from his ally the Sultanate of Demak in Java who, in 1511, agreed to send naval forces to assist. Led by Pati Unus, the Sultan of Demak, the combined Malay–Java efforts failed and were fruitless. The Portuguese retaliated and forced the sultan to flee to Pahang. Later, the sultan sailed to Bintan Island and established a new capital there. With a base established, the sultan rallied the disarrayed Malay forces and organized several attacks and blockades against the Portuguese's position. Frequent raids on Malacca caused the Portuguese severe hardship. In 1521 the second Demak campaign to assist the Malay Sultan to retake Malacca was launched, however once again failed with the cost of the Demak Sultan's life. He was later remembered as Pangeran Sabrang Lor or the Prince who crossed (the Java Sea) to North (Malay Peninsula). The raids helped convince the Portuguese that the exiled sultan's forces must be silenced. A number of attempts were made to suppress the Malay forces, but it wasn't until 1526 that the Portuguese finally razed Bintan to the ground. The sultan then retreated to Kampar in Riau, Sumatra where he died two years later. He left behind two sons named Muzaffar Shah and Alauddin Riayat Shah II. Muzaffar Shah was invited by the people in the north of the peninsula to become their ruler, establishing the Sultanate of Perak. Meanwhile, Mahmud's other son, Alauddin succeeded his father and made a new capital in the south. His realm was the Johor Sultanate, the successor of Malacca. Several attempts to remove Malacca from Portuguese rule were made by the Sultan of Johor. A request sent to Java, in 1550, resulted in Queen Kalinyamat, the regent of Jepara, sending 4,000 soldiers in 40 ships to meet the Johor sultan's request to take Malacca. The Jepara troops later joined forces with the Malay alliance and manage to rally around 200 warships. The combined forces attacked from the north and captured most of Malacca, but the Portuguese managed to retaliate and force back the invading forces. Malay alliance troops were thrown back to the sea, while the Jepara troops remained on shore. Only after their leaders were slain were the Jepara troops withdrawn. The battle continued on the beach and in the sea and killed more than 2,000 Jepara soldiers. A storm stranded two Jepara ships on the shore of Malacca, and they fell prey to the Portuguese. Fewer than half of the Jepara soldiers managed to leave Malacca. In 1567, Prince Husain Ali I Riayat Syah from the Sultanate of Aceh launched a naval attack to oust the Portuguese from Malacca, but this once again ended in failure. In 1574 a combined attack from Aceh Sultanate and Javanese Jepara tried again to capture Malacca from the Portuguese, but ended in failure due to poor coordination. Competition from other ports such as Johor saw Asian traders bypass Malacca and the city began to decline as a trading port.[3] Rather than achieving their ambition of dominating it, the Portuguese had fundamentally disrupted the organisation of the Asian trade network. Rather than a centralised port of exchange of Asian wealth exchange, or a Malay state to police the Strait of Malacca that made it safe for commercial traffic, trade was now scattered over a number of ports amongst bitter warfare in the Straits.[3] Chinese military retaliation against Portugal The Malay Malacca Sultanate was a tributary state and ally to Ming Dynasty China. When Portugal conquered Malacca in 1511, the Chinese responded with violent force against the Portuguese. Following the attack, the Chinese refused to accept a Portuguese embassy.[4] The Chinese Imperial Government imprisoned and executed multiple Portuguese diplomatic envoys after torturing them in Guangzhou. A Malaccan envoy had informed the Chinese of the Portuguese seizure of Malacca, which the Chinese responded to with hostility toward the Portuguese. The Malaccan envoy told the Chinese of the deception the Portuguese used, disguising plans for conquering territory as mere trading activities, and told his tale of deprivations at the hands of the Portuguese.[5] Malacca was under Chinese protection and the Portuguese invasion angered the Chinese.[6] Due to the Malaccan Sultan lodging a complaint against the Portuguese invasion to the Chinese Emperor, the Portuguese were greeted with hostility from the Chinese when they arrived in China.[7] The Sultan's complaint caused "a great deal of trouble" to Portuguese in China.[8] The Chinese were very "unwelcoming" to the Portuguese.[9] The Malaccan Sultan, based in Bintan after fleeing Malacca, sent a message to the Chinese, which combined with Portuguese banditry and violent activity in China, led the Chinese authorities to execute 23 Portuguese and torture the rest of them in jails. After the Portuguese set up posts for trading in China and committed piratical activities and raids in China, the Chinese responded with the complete extermination of the Portuguese in Ningbo and Quanzhou[10] Pires, a Portuguese trade envoy, was among those who died in the Chinese dungeons.[11] Chinese boycott and counterattacks Chinese traders boycotted Malacca after it fell under Portuguese control, some Chinese in Java assisted in Muslim attempts to reconquer the city from Portugal using ships. The Java Chinese participation in retaking Malacca was recorded in "The Malay Annals of Semarang and Cerbon"[12] trading the Chinese did business with Malays and Javanese instead of the Portuguese.[13] Dutch conquest and the end of Portuguese Malacca Further information: Battle of Malacca (1641) In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company (Dutch: Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, VOC) began contesting Portuguese power in the East. At that time, the Portuguese had transformed Malacca into an impregnable fortress, the Fortaleza de Malaca, controlling access to the sea lanes of the Straits of Malacca and the spice trade there. The Dutch started by launching small incursions and skirmishes against the Portuguese. The first serious attempt was the siege of Malacca in 1606 by the third VOC fleet from Holland with eleven ships, led by Admiral Cornelis Matelief de Jonge that lead to the naval battle of Cape Rachado. Although the Dutch were routed, the Portuguese fleet of Martim Afonso de Castro, the Viceroy of Goa; suffered heavier casualties and the battle rallied the forces of the Sultanate of Johor in an alliance with the Dutch and later on with the Aceh Sultanate. In early 17th century, the Sultanate of Aceh grew into a regional power with formidable naval force and regarded Portuguese Malacca as potential threat. In 1629, Iskandar Muda of Aceh Sultanate sent several hundred ships to attack Malacca, but the mission was a devastating failure. According to Portuguese sources, all of his ships were destroyed along with 19,000 men. The Dutch with their local allies assaulted and finally wrested Malacca from the Portuguese in January 1641. This combined Dutch-Johor-Aceh efforts effectively destroyed the last bastion of Portuguese power, reducing their influence in the archipelago. The Dutch settled in the city as Dutch Malacca, however the Dutch had no intention to make Malacca their main base, and concentrated on building Batavia (today Jakarta) as their headquarters in the orient instead. The Portuguese ports in spice producing area of Mollucas also fell to the Dutch in following years, with the last Portuguese colony remained and confined only in Portuguese Timor until 20th century. Fortaleza de Malaca The early core of the fortress system was a quadrilateral tower called Fortaleza de Malaca. Measurement was given as 10 fathoms per side with a height of 40 fathoms. It was constructed at the foot of the fortress hill, next to the sea. To its east was constructed a circular wall of mortar and stone with a well in the middle of the enclosure. Over the years, constructions began to fully fortify the fortress hill. The pentagonal system began at the farthest point of the cape near south east of the river mouth, towards the west of the Fortaleza. At this point two ramparts were built at right angles to each other lining the shores. The one running northward toward the river mouth was 130 fathoms in length to the bastion of São Pedro while the other one ran for 75 fathoms to the east, curving inshore, ending at the gate and bastion of Santiago. From the bastion of São Pedro the rampart turned north east 150 fathoms past the Custom House Terrace gateway ending at the northernmost point of the fortress, the bastion of São Domingos. From the gateway of São Domingos, an earth rampart ran south-easterly for 100 fathoms ending at the bastion of the Madre de Deus. From here, beginning at the gate of Santo António, past the bastion of the Virgins, the rampart ended at the gateway of Santiago. Overall the city enclosure was 655 fathoms and 10 palms (short) of a fathom. Gateways Four gateways were built for the city; Porta de Santiago The gateway of the Custom House Terrace Porta de São Domingos Porta de Santo António Of these four gateways only two were in common use and open to traffic, the Gate of Santo António linking to the suburb of Yler and the western gate at the Custom House Terrace, giving access to Tranqueira and its bazaar. Destruction Present day Porta de Santiago. After almost 300 years of existence, in 1806, the British, unwilling to maintain the fortress and wary of letting other European powers taking control of it, ordered its slow destruction. The fort was almost totally demolished but for the timely intervention of Sir Stamford Raffles visiting Malacca in 1810. The only remnants of the earliest Portuguese fortress in Southeast Asia is the Porta de Santiago, now known as the A Famosa. Malacca Town during the Portuguese Era Outside of the fortified town center lie the three suburbs of Malacca. The suburb of Upe (Upih), generally known as Tranqueira (modern day Tengkera) from the rampart of the fortress. The other two suburb were Yler (Hilir) or Tanjonpacer (Tanjung Pasir) and the suburb of Sabba. Tranqueira Tranqueira was the most important suburb of Malacca. The suburb was rectangular in shape, with a northern walled boundary, the straits of Malacca to the south and the river of Malacca (Rio de Malaca) and the fortaleza's wall to the east. It was the main residential quarters of the city. However, in war, the residence of the quarters would be evacuated to the fortress. Tranqueira was divided into a further two parishes, São Tomé and São Estêvão. The parish of S.Tomé was called Campon Chelim (Malay: Kampung Keling). It was described that this area was populated by the Chelis of Choromandel. The other suburb of São Estêvão was also called Campon China (Kampung Cina). Erédia described the houses as made of timber but roofed by tiles. A stone bridge with sentry crosses the river Malacca to provide access to the Malacca Fortress via the eastern Custome House Terrace. The center of trade of the city was also located in Tranqueira near the beach on the mouth of the river called the Bazaar of the Jaos (Jowo/Jawa i.e. Javanese). In the present day, this part of the city is called Tengkera. Yler The district of Yler (Hilir) roughly covered Buquet China (Bukit Cina) and the south-eastern coastal area. The Well of Buquet China was one of the most important water sources for the community. Notable landmarks included the Church of the Madre De Deus and the Convent of the Capuchins of São Francisco. Other notable landmarks included Buquetpiatto (Bukit Piatu). The boundaries of this unwalled suburb were said to extend as far as Buquetpipi and Tanjonpacer. Tanjonpacer (Malay: Tanjung Pasir) was later renamed Ujong Pasir. A community descended from Portuguese settlers is still located here in present day Malacca. However, this suburb of Yler is now known as Banda Hilir. Modern land reclamations (for the purpose of building the commercial district of Melaka Raya) have, however, denied Banda Hilir the access to the sea that it formerly had. Sabba The houses of this suburb were built along the edges of the river. Some of the original Muslim Malay inhabitants of Malacca lived in the swamps of Nypeiras tree, where they were known to make Nypa (Nipah) wine by distillation for trade. This suburb was considered the most rural, being a transition to the Malacca hinterland, where timber and charcoal traffic passed through into the city. Several Christian parishes also lay outside the city along the river; São Lázaro, Our Lady of Guadalupe, Our Lady of Hope. While Muslim Malays inhabited the farmlands deeper into the hinterland. In later periods of Dutch, British and modern day Malacca, the name of Sabba was made obsolete. However, its area encompassed parts of what is now Banda Kaba, Bunga Raya and Kampung Jawa; and the modern city center of Malacca Portuguese Immigration The Portuguese also shipped over many Orfas del Rei to Portuguese colonies overseas in Africa and India, and also to Portuguese Malacca. Orfas del Rei literally translates to "Orphans of the King", and they were Portuguese girl orphans sent to overseas colonies to marry either Portuguese settlers or natives with high status. Portuguese administration of Malacca Malacca was administered by a Governor (a Captain-Major), who was appointed for a term of three-years, as well as a Bishop and church dignitaries representing the Episcopal See, municipal officers, Royal Officials for finance and justice and a local native Bendahara to administer the native Muslims and foreigners under the Portuguese jurisdiction. Flag Portugal (1640).svg Captains-Major of Malacca (1512–1641) Captains-major From Until Rui de Brito Patalim 1512 1514 Jorge de Albuquerque (1st time) 1514 1516 Jorge de Brito 1516 1517 Nuno Vaz Pereira 1517 1518 Afonso Lopes da Costa 1518 1519 Garcia de Sá (1st time) 1519 1521 Jorge de Albuquerque (2nd time) 1521 1525 Pero de Mascarenhas 1525 1526 Jorge Cabral 1526 1528 Pero de Faria 1528 1529


The Sultanate of Malacca كسلطانن ملايو ملاك Kesultanan Melayu Melaka 1400–1511 ↓ The extent of the Sultanate in the 15th century Capital Malacca Languages Malay language Religion Islam Government Monarchy Sultan - 1400–1414 Iskandar Shah - 1414–1424 Megat Iskandar Shah - 1424–1444 Muhammad Shah - 1444–1446 Abu Syahid Shah - 1446–1459 Muzaffar Shah - 1459–1477 Mansur Shah - 1477–1488 Alauddin Riayat Shah - 1488–1511 Mahmud Shah - 1511–1513 Ahmad Shah Bendahara - 1400–1412 (first) Tun Perpatih Permuka Berjajar - 1445–1456 Tun Ali - 1456–1498 Tun Perak - 1500–1510 Tun Mutahir - 1510–1511 Paduka Tuan

Friday, 25 April 2014


 DI antara ulama Nusantara ada yang sangat terkenal dalam lingkungan di mana dia berada, sebaliknya ada pula ulama yang tidak pernah dikenal di kampung halamannya. Ada ulama namanya terus memancarkan sinar, ibarat matahari menyuluh terang benderang bagi alam semesta. Syeikh Muhammad Zain Nuruddin yang berasal dari negeri Batu Bahara, Indera Pura, Sumatera Utara, belum banyak dikenal oleh orang luar tetapi beliau sangat terkenal di negeri kelahirannya sepanjang zaman. Hingga sekarang makamnya masih diziarahi orang kerana beliau digolongkan sebagai ulama yang mempunyai ‘karamah’. Kadang-kadang ada ulama yang menghasilkan sebuah karangan saja, mungkin lama tidak dibicarakan orang, tetapi pada satu ketika cahayanya yang pudar kelam akan memancarkan sinar yang terang benderang kerana terdapat sesuatu rahsia ilmu yang bermanfaat di dalamnya. Daripada dua buah karya Syeikh Muhammad Zain Nuruddin, yang telah dijumpai, telah menyuluh qalbi (hati) saya, rasanya kesan suluhan itu perlu saya tulis dan perkenalkan kepada para pencinta ruangan Ulama Nusantara ini. Ulama Nusantara yang diperkenalkan kali ini nama lengkapnya ialah Tuan Guru Syeikh Muhammad Zain Nuruddin bin Tuan Imam Syeikh Haji Abbas bin Haji Muhammad Lashub bin Haji Abdul Karim bin Tuan Faqih Negeri, Batu Bahara Pesisir Dahari, Indera Pura, Sumatera Utara. Syeikh Muhammad Zain Nuruddin dilahirkan di Payakumbuh (daerah Minangkabau), Sumatera Barat. Pihak ayah pada Syeikh Muhammad Zain Nuruddin banyak beliau sebut dalam tulisannya. Yang lain-lain juga beliau sebut, bahawa ibunya bernama Hajah Shafiyah binti Zainal Abidin. Isterinya bernama Kemala Intan, ialah Hajah Fathimah binti Haji Muhammad Thaiyib bin Idris (Miftah ash-Shibyan, hlm. 31). Pendidikan Tentang pendidikan Syeikh Muhammad Zain Nuruddin, untuk sumber awal kita tidak perlu mencari dari sumber luar kerana semuanya beliau sebut sendiri dalam dua buah karangannya. Semua nama gurunya beliau sebut dengan lengkap, secara beradab menyatakan gelar yang ada pada mereka. Yang pertama sekali beliau sebut ialah ayahnya sendiri, katanya, “... kepada Syeikhina al-Walidiyi al-murabbiyi ruhiyi wa jasadiyi al-Alim asy-Syeikh Abbas, Imam al-Khalidi an-Naqsyabandi, ibnu al-Mukarram al-Haji Muhammad Lashub.” Kata beliau pula, “Kemudian berpindah hamba kepada negeri yang mulia Mekah al-Musyarrafah mengambil ilmu ushuluddin kepada Syeikhina al-Allamah asy-Syeikh Utsman ibnu Abdul Wahhab Sarawak, dan kepada Syeikhina al-Alim al-Allamah al-Arif al-Muhaqqiq wa al-Mudaqqiq al-Fahamah Muhammad Shalih ibnu al-Marhum asy-Syeikh Muhammad Ba Fadhal Imam Syafie, dan kepada Syeikhina al-Allamah al-Hibr al-Bahr al-Fahamah al-Arif Billah Maulana wa Qudwatuna Ahmad Khathib ibnu asy-Syeikh Abdul Lathif Imam Syafie, dan kepada Syeikhina al-Alim al-Allamah al-Wara’ an-Nasib asy-Syeikh Muhammad Mukhtar ibnu al-Marhum Raden Atharid al-Bughri al-Mudarris bi al-Masjid al-Haram.” Syeikh Muhammad Zain Nuruddin bukan hanya menyebut gurunya saja, tetapi juga disebut para guru pada ayahnya, yang beliau juga sempat belajar kepada mereka ialah Syeikh Ismail bin Syeikh al-Khathib Sikin, Alim al-Allamah al-Fahamah Syeikh Zainal Abidin bin Muhammad al-Fathani, Allamah Syeikh Muhammad Thaiyib bin Mas'ud al-Banjari al-Qad-hi." Ulama yang menjadi guru bagi ayahnya, Syeikh Muhammad Zain Nuruddin tidak sempat belajar kepadanya, tetapi banyak disebut dengan nama yang lengkap ialah “Asy-Syeikh al-Alim al-Allamah al-Fadhil al-Muhaqqiq wa al-Mudaqqiq al-Arif Billah Ahmad bin Muhammad Zain bin Mushthafa bin Muhammad al-Fathani tsumma al-Makki ...” (Fawaid az-Zain, hlm. 20, 62 dan 64). Syeikh Muhammad Zain Nuruddin tidak sempat belajar kepada Syeikh Ahmad al-Fathani kerana sewaktu beliau melanjutkan pelajaran di Mekah ulama Patani itu meninggal dunia. Walau bagaimanapun Syeikh Muhammad Zain Nuruddin masih ada hubungan sanad ilmu kepada Syeikh Ahmad al-Fathani sama ada melalui ayah beliau mahu pun guru-gurunya yang lain. Selain itu Syeikh Muhammad Zain Nuruddin menadah kitab-kitab karangan Syeikh Ahmad al-Fathani di antaranya ialah Faridah al-Faraid (akidah), Tashil Nail al-Amani (nahu), dan lain-lain. Kerana itulah dalam kedua-dua karyanya mengenai tauhid beliau banyak menyebut nama kitab Faridah al-Faraid karangan Syeikh Ahmad al-Fathani. Penulisan Di antara karangan Syeikh Muhammad Zain Nuruddin yang telah ditemui hanya dua judul, yang pertama Fawaid az-Zain fi ‘Ilm al-‘Aqaid Ushul ad-Din, diselesaikan waktu Dhuha, pukul 8, hari Jumaat, 7 Rabiulakhir 1342 H/16 November 1923 M (pada cetakan dinyatakan 7 Rabiulawal 1342 H, adalah salah cetak). Dicatatkan “Pada masa kerajaan Saiyiduna wa Maulana wa Qudwatuna Abdullah yang bergelar Datuk Muda Lela Wangsa ibni al-Marhum Datuk Tih ibni al-Marhum Datuk Samuangsa Tua Raja yang memerintah Negeri Pesisir Bahara ... “ Dicetak oleh Mathba’ah at-Taqaddum al-‘Ilmiyah, Mesir, yang dimiliki oleh waris Saiyid Abdul Wahid Bek at-Thubi, Mesir, tanpa dinyatakan tarikh. Kandungan membicarakan akidah dengan menggunakan pelbagai rujukan kitab-kitab Arab, karya ulama-ulama dunia Melayu dan karya guru-gurunya. Kitab ini diperolehi hari Isnin, 28 Rejab 1417 H/9 Disember 1996 M berasal dari milik seorang ulama bernama Syeikh Abdul Ghani bin Abdul Hamid, Pinang Baik, Selayang, Selangor. Judul yang kedua ialah Miftah ash-Shibyan fi ‘Aqaid al-Iman, diselesaikan pada 11 Safar 1366 H/4 Januari 1947 M. Tanpa menyebut nama percetakan, hanya disebutkan oleh pengarangnya, “Telah al-haqir benarkan mencetak atau menthaba’ ini risalah yang bernama Miftah ash-Shibyan fi ‘Aqaid al-Iman akan akhina al-Fadhil, lagi Arif, Muhammad Qasim bin al-Marhum Tuan Haji Muhammad ‘li barang di mana-mana tempat cetak dan thaba' dengan tiada dakwa dakwi, demikianlah adanya.” Pada mukadimah Fawaid az-Zain, Syeikh Muhammad Zain Nuruddin memetik pendapat dua ulama dunia Melayu yang beliau bersanad kepadanya. Kedua-dua ulama itu ialah Syeikh Muhammad Zain bin Faqih Jalaluddin Aceh dan Syeikh Zainal Abidin bin Muhammad al-Fathani, kata beliau, “Kata ulama, haram belajar ilmu usuluddin pada orang yang tiada mahir ilmunya dan tiada mengambil daripada gurunya ...” Pada konteks ini beliau tulis pada halaman depan kitab Miftah ash-Shibyan dengan merujuk kitab Syeikh Muhammad Zain bin Faqih Jalaluddin Aceh saja katanya, “Bahawa adalah kitab yang kita baca itu yang mengarangnya orang yang dibilang orang, dengan sekira-kira barang mana negeri dimasuknya maka tiada disalahkan orang ilmunya. Dan lagi pula bahawa adalah itu dengan mengambil daripada gurunya jangan ditelaah saja pada kitabnya. Kerana tiada hasil ilmu itu melainkan dengan pengambilan. Dan daripada kerana inilah kebanyakan manusia yang mendakwa dirinya alim, mentelaah dengan tiada pengambilan daripada gurunya maka tiba-tiba disalahkan oleh orang awam, dan orang yang dungu. Dan terkadang dia pula menyalahkan kitab mazhab orang yang lain bukan mazhab dirinya. Demikianlah kelakuan mereka itu.” (Miftah ash-Shibyan, hlm. kulit). Daripada perkara-perkara disebutkan inilah barangkali menjadi sebab Syeikh Muhammad Zain Nuruddin sangat cermat menyebut beberapa orang gurunya, yang kemudian diiringinya dengan sanad. Tentang sanad kata beliau, “Dan hamba menyebutkan sanad itu kerana perkataan ulama, iaitu al-Alim al-Allamah as-Saiyid Ahmad bin as-Saiyid Abdur Rahman an-Nahrawi, “Bahawasanya mengetahui sanad itu setengah daripada pekerjaan agama. Dan barang siapa tiada baginya sanad, maka iaitu seperti anak yang dipungut, yang tiada tentu bangsanya ...” (Miftah ash-Shibyan, hlm. 30). Petikan dari Syeikh Zainal Abidin bin Muhammad al-Fathani saja, katanya, “Dan setengah daripada mereka itu yang berpegang dengan ayat Quran yang mutasyabihat atau hadis yang mutasyabihat padahal tiada dilintungkan dengan qawathi’ aqliyah dan naqliyah yang muhkamat tetapi diambil akan zahir mutasyabihat itu, maka jadi jatuh mereka itu pada laut kufur. Maka sesat mereka itu dan mereka itu menyesatkan pula akan manusia yang awam ... Maka adalah mereka itu seperti Dajjal. Atau lebih jahat lagi daripada Dajal.” (Fawaid az-Zain, hlm. 3). Mengenai ini Syeikh Muhammad Zain Nuruddin menjelaskan selanjut bahawa asal kufur dan asal bidaah tujuh perkara. Ketujuh-tujuhnya beliau sebut satu persatunya, pada konteks di atas ialah yang keenam, berpegang pada iktikad iman dengan semata-mata zahir Quran dan hadis dengan tiada takwil atas beberapa barahin aqliyah dan qawathi' yang syar'iyah. (Fawaid az-Zain, hlm. 7). Syeikh Muhammad Zain Nuruddin menyebut bahawa rujukan mengenai ini ialah dari kitab Muqaddimat oleh Imam Sanusi. Perkara yang sama juga disebut oleh Syeikh Daud bin Abdullah al-Fathani dalam ad-Durr ats-Tsamin, Syeikh Ahmad al-Fathani dalam Jumanah at-Tauhid, dan ulama-ulama yang lain dalam kitab-kitab mereka. Amalan wirid Menurut Syeikh Muhammad Zain Nuruddin sebab-sebab yang boleh memerdekakan diri dari api neraka beliau telah memetik tulisan al-Allamah asy-Syeikh Muhammad Shalih Kamal bin Shiddiq Kamal, Mufti Mekah daripada Syeikh al-Allamah Alauddin. Dari demikian banyak yang disebutkan disimpulkan saja, ada hadis riwayat daripada Bazzar, daripada Malik, dari Nabi s.a.w., “Barang siapa membaca surah al-Ikhlas 100,000 kali, maka sungguhnya ia telah membeli akan dirinya daripada Allah ... “ Maksud hadis ini ialah menebus dirinya atau orang lain daripada api neraka jika dibacakan dengan ikhlas jumlah demikian sepanjang hidupnya. Mengenai ini dikaitkan pula bahawa ada hadis, “Barang siapa membaca tahlil 70,000, nescaya adalah ia tebus dirinya daripada api neraka.” (Miftah ash-Shibyan, hlm. 19). Sesudah menyebut satu rangkaian zikir dan wirid yang agak panjang, Syeikh Muhammad Zain Nuruddin menyebut bahawa wirid yang tersebut beliau terima daripada Syeikh Ahmad Khathib di Mekah (Miftah ash-Shibyan, hlm. 20). Sungguh pun sangat popular dalam sejarah bahawa Syeikh Ahmad Khathib al-Minankabawi sangat anti terhadap Tarekat Naqsyabandiyah. Namun Syeikh Muhammad Zain Nuruddin juga membicarakan tarekat tetapi beliau tidak menolaknya. Bahkan Syeikh Muhammad Zain Nuruddin menyebut dalil mengenai zikir itu beliau petik dari tulisan Syeikh al-Islam al-Alim al-Allamah Muhammad al-Khalili pada fatwanya dan daripada Fat-h al-Mubin, oleh al-Allamah Syeikh Ahmad Khathib Imam asy-Syafie di Makkah al-Musyarrafah. Syeikh Muhammad Zain Nuruddin menyebut, Kitab yang tersebut diijazahkan Syeikhuna kepada hamba al-Haqir pada masa di dalam Mekah al-Musyarrafah. (Miftah ash-Shibyan, hlm. 21). Syeikh Muhammad Zain Nuruddin juga sempat belajar dengan Syeikh Wan Ali Kutan al-Kalantani. Oleh itu pada bicara pelbagai jenis amalan seperti wirid, selawat, istighfar, dan lain-lain beliau sebut judul kitab ulama Kelantan itu, iaitu Lum’atul Aurad (Miftah ash-Shibyan, hlm. 30-32). Di antara amalan yang sangat penting beliau sebutkan ialah dua jenis selawat yang dibangsakan kepada wali Allah Syeikh Ahmad al-Badawi yang menurut beliau sangat besar fadilat mengamalkannya. Untuk memperoleh sesuatu fadilat perlulah beramal dengan kekal.

Thursday, 24 April 2014


Sultan Abdul Jalil Jalaluddin Shah Baginda adalah anak kepada Sultan Abdul Jalil Rahmat Shah JOHOR Sultan Abdul Jalil Jalaluddin Syah (1765-1766) yang juga dikenali sebagai Tengku Ismail. Sultan Abdul Jalil Jalaluddin Syah merupakan sultan ketiga dalam turutan sultan-sultan Kerajaan Siak Sri Indrapura. Baginda menaiki tahta kerajaan bagi menggantikan ayahandanya iaitu Sultan Abdul Jalil Rakhmad Syah. Beliau tak lama memerintah kerana setahun setelah dinobatkan sebagai Sultan pengganti ayahandanya Marhum Mempura Besar datanglah pihak Belanda yang menggulingkannya dan melantik Tengku Alam (yang kemudiannya menjadi Sultan IV) sebagai pengganti. Setelah mangkat dalam kesedihan yang tak berkesudahan, beliau digelar dengan sebutan Marhum Mangkat di Balai.


 Sultan Muzaffar Shah was the fifth Sultan of Malacca. He ruled from 1445 to 1459. He is the son of Sultan Muhammad Shah. The original name of Sultan Muzaffar Shah is Raja Kassim and known as Sulutan Wudafona Sha in History of Ming of China. Raja Kassim, son of Sultan Muhammad Shah and Tun Wati, was installed as the fifth ruler of Malacca after the death of Sultan Muhammad Shah. After his installation as ruler of Malacca, Raja Kassim titled as Sultan Muzaffar Shah. Sultan Muzaffar Shah has ordered senior officers to perform all the customs, traditions and prohibitions introduced by his late father. Sultan Muzaffar Shah married with the daughter of the Bendahara (Prime Minister) and had a son named Raja Abdullah. When Bendahara Seri Wak Raja I died, the Sultan has appointed Tun Perpatih Sedang, son of the late Bendahara as Bendahara and given the title Seri Melaka Wak King (II). However, Sri Wak Raja II has taken his own life by drinking poison when he mistook the Sultan that the Sultan displeased him. He leaves a daughter, Tun Kudu, and two sons, Tun Perak and Tun Perpatih Patih. Sultan Muzaffar Shah later married Tun Kudu. Tun Perak, which at that time did not hold any post in Malacca were sent by Sultan Muzaffar Shah to become a country leader in Klang. Seri Nara Diraja Tun Ali, the uncle of the Sultan also served as the bendahara of Malacca. Future threats from Ayutthaya, the capital of Siam, made possible by the occurrence of an attack on Malacca by road in 1446. Tun Perak led his people from Klang to Malacca to repel the attacks of Siam. Judgment and his leadership had attracted great attention of the Sultan. That he has high hopes to see that Malacca continued to grow, Tun Perak appointed as Bendahara. Tun Perak arose in political arena has created tension between him and Tun Ali. Looking feud between these two beloved leaders can lead to disunity among the people of Malacca. Sultan Muzaffar Shah has been in talks with Tun Ali, who is a widower who was old at the time. Tun Ali agreed to continue the role he provided and allowed to marry Tun Kudu, who is one of the Sultan's wives. Sultan Muzaffar Shah consented to divorce his wife for the sake of political stability and Tun Kudu has also agreed to marry Tun Ali for the well being of the country. The sacrifice of Sultan Muzaffar Shah and Tun Kudu was not in vain. Tun Ali and Tun Perak became close friends and had always worked for the development of Malacca. Soon, Tun Ali himself applied to the Sultan to appoint Tun Perak as bendahara. Thus, Sultan has appointed Tun Perak as the new bendahara and titled Paduka Raja around 1456 Siamese government, based in Ayutthaya, determined to conquer Malacca despite their previous attack by land was ended with the defeat of their party. In 1456, during the reign of King Boromo Trilokanat, Siam had made plans to attack Malacca by sea. When Malacca Government knew about this plan, it has prepared its naval and decided to break the Siamese in Batu Pahat. The forces led by Tun Perak and assisted by Tun Hamzah, a warrior who called Datuk Bongkok. A fierce battle took place between the two sides, and this is the first battle of Malacca. However, Malacca has the advantage in terms of skills and knowledge has been successfully drove the Siamese forces to Singapore and forced them back. Malacca victory in this war has injected new vigor in the strategy to expand its influence in the Malay Archipelago. The Victory over Siam has also led to political stability and strengthened the reputation of Malacca in Southeast Asia. Sultan Muzaffar Shah died in 1459 and his tomb is still in Malacca now.



Kerajaan Tidung Wilayah kerajaan Tidung, Kalimantan Timur Berdiri 1551-1916 Didahului oleh Kerajaan Tidung kuno Digantikan oleh Tarakan Ibu kota Kota Tarakan Bahasa Tidung Agama Islam Kerajaan Tidung[1] atau dikenal pula dengan nama Kerajaan Tarakan (Kalkan/Kalka) adalah kerajaan yang memerintah Suku Tidung di utara Kalimantan Timur, yang berkedudukan di Pulau Tarakan dan berakhir di Salimbatu. Sebelumnya terdapat dua kerajaan di kawasan ini, selain Kerajaan Tidung, terdapat pula Kesultanan Bulungan yang berkedudukan di Tanjung Palas. Berdasarkan silsilah (Genealogy) yang ada bahwa, bahwa di pesisir timur pulau Tarakan yakni, di kawasan binalatung sudah ada Kerajaan Tidung kuno (The Ancient Kingdom of Tidung), kira-kira tahun 1076-1156. Kemudian berpindah ke pesisir barat pulau Tarakan yakni, di kawasan Tanjung Batu, kira-kira pada tahun 1156-1216. Lalu bergeser lagi, tetapi tetap di pesisir barat yakni, ke kawasan sungai bidang kira-kira pada tahun 1216-1394. Setelah itu berpindah lagi, yang relatif jauh dari pulau Tarakan yakni, ke kawasan Pimping bagian barat dan kawasan Tanah Kuning, yakni, sekitar tahun 1394-1557. Riwayat tentang kerajaan maupun pemimpin (Raja) yang pernah memerintah dikalangan suku Tidung terbagi dari beberapa tempat yang sekarang sudah terpisah menjadi beberapa daerah Kabupaten antara lain Kabupaten Bulungan (Salimbatu, Kecamatan Tanjung Palas Tengah), (Malinau Kota, Kabupaten Malinau]]), Sesayap, Kabupaten Tana Tidung, (Sembakung, Kabupaten Nunukan , (Kota Tarakan) dan lain-lain hingga ke daerah Sabah (Malaysia) bagian selatan. Dari riwayat-riwayat yang terdapat dikalangan suku Tidung tentang kerajaan yang pernah ada dan dapat dikatakan yang paling tua di antara riwayat lainnya yaitu dari Menjelutung di Sungai Sesayap dengan rajanya yang terakhir bernama Benayuk. Berakhirnya zaman kerajaan Menjelutung karena ditimpa malapetaka berupa hujan ribut dan angin topan yang sangat dahsyat sehingga mengakibatkan perkampungan di situ runtuh dan tenggelam ke dalam air (sungai) berikut warganya. Peristiwa tersebut di kalangan suku Tidung disebut Gasab yang kemudian menimbulkan berbagai mitos tentang Benayuk dari Menjelutung. Dari beberapa sumber didapatkan riwayat tentang masa pemerintahan Benayuk yang berlangsung sekitar 35 musim. Perhitungan musim tersebut adalah berdasarkan hitungan hari bulan (purnama) yang dalam semusim terdapat 12 purnama. Dari itu maka hitungan musim dapat disamakan +kurang lebih dengan tahun Hijriah. Apabila dirangkaikan dengan riwayat tentang beberapa tokoh pemimpin (Raja) yang dapat diketahui lama masa pemerintahan dan keterkaitannya dengan Benayuk, maka diperkirakan tragedi di Menjelutung tersebut terjadi pada sekitaran awal abad XI. Kelompok-kelompok suku Tidung pada zaman kerajaan Menjelutung belumlah seperti apa yang terdapat sekarang ini, sebagaimana diketahui bahwa dikalangan suku Tidung yang ada di Kalimantan timur sekarang terdapat 4 (empat) kelompok dialek bahasa Tidung, yaitu : Dialek bahas Tidung Malinau Dialek bahasa Tidung Sembakung. Dialek bahas Tidung Sesayap. Dialek bahas Tidung Tarakan yang biasa pula disebut Tidung Tengara yang kebanyakan bermukim di daerah air asin. Dari adanya beberapa dialek bahasa Tidung yang merupakan kelompok komunitas berikut lingkungan sosial budayanya masing-masing, maka tentulah dari kelompok-kelompok dimaksud memiliki pemimpin masing-masing. Sebagaimana diriwayatkan kemudian bahwa setelah kerajaan Benayuk di Menjelutung runtuh maka anak keturunan beserta warga yang selamat berpindah dan menyebar kemudian membangun pemukiman baru. Salah seorang dari keturunan Benayuk yang bernama Kayam selaku pemimpin dari pemukiman di Linuang Kayam (Kampung si Kayam) yang merupakan cikal bakal dari pemimpin (raja-raja) di Pulau Mandul, Sembakung dan Lumbis. Daftar Silsilah Raja-Raja Tidung Raja-raja dari Kerajaan Tidung Kuno Kerajaan Tidung Kuno adalah Suatu Pemerintahan yang dipimpin oleh seorang Raja, dimana pusat pemerintahan selalu berpindah-pindah dengan wilayah yang kecil/kampung. Benayuk dari sungai Sesayap, Menjelutung (Masa Pemerintahan ± 35 Musim) Berakhirnya zaman kerajaan Menjelutung karena ditimpa malapetaka berupa hujan ribut dan angin topan yang sangat dahsyat sehingga mengakibatkan perkampungan di situ runtuh dan tenggelam ke dalam air (sungai) berikut warganya. Peristiwa tersebut di kalangan suku Tidung disebut Gasab yang kemudian menimbulkan berbagai mitos tentang Benayuk dari Menjelutung. Yamus (Si Amus) (Masa Pemerintahan ± 44 Musim) Selang 15 (lima belas) musim setelah Menjelutung runtuh seorang keturunan Benayuk yang bernama Yamus (Si Amus) yang bermukim di Liyu Maye mengangkat diri sebagai raja yang kemudian memindahkan pusat pemukiman ke Binalatung (Tarakan). Yamus memerintah selama 44 (empat puluh empat) musim, setelah wafat Yamus digantikan oleh salah seorang cucunya yang bernama Ibugang (Aki Bugang). Ibugang (Aki Bugang) Ibugang beristrikan Ilawang (Adu Lawang) beranak tiga orang. Dari ketiga anak ini hanya seorang yang tetap tinggal di Binalatung yaitu bernama Itara, yang satu ke Betayau dan yang satu lagi ke Penagar. Itara (Lebih kurang 29 Musim) Itara memerintah selama 29 (dua puluh sembilan) musim. Setelah wafat Anak keturunan Itara yang bernama Ikurung kemudian meneruskan pemerintahan dan memerintah selama 25 (dua puluh lima) musim Ikurung (Lebih kurang 25 Musim) Ikurung beristrikan Puteri Kurung yang beranakkan Ikarang yang kemudian menggantikan ayahnya yang telah wafat. Ikarang (Lebih kurang 35 Musim), di Tanjung Batu (Tarakan). Ikarang memerintah selama 35 (tiga puluh lima) musim di Tanjung Batu (Tarakan). Karangan (Lebih kurang Musim) Karangan yang bristrikan Puteri Kayam (Puteri dari Linuang Kayam) yang kemudian beranakkan Ibidang. Ibidang (Lebih kurang Musim) Bengawan (Lebih kurang 44 Musim) Diriwayatkan sebagai seorang raja yang tegas dan bijaksana dan wilayah kekuasaannya di pesisir melebihi batas wilayah pesisir Kabupaten Bulungan sekarang yaitu dari Tanjung Mangkaliat di selatan kemudian ke utara sampai di Kudat (Sabah, Malaysia). Diriwayatkan pula bahwa Raja Bengawan sudah menganut Agama Islam dan memerintah selama 44 (empat puluh empat) musim. Setelah Bengawan wafat ia digantikan oleh puteranya yang bernama Itambu Itambu (Lebih kurang 20 Musim) Aji Beruwing Sakti (Lebih kurang 30 Musim) Aji Surya Sakti (Lebih kurang 30 Musim) Aji Pengiran Kungun (Lebih kurang 25 Musim) Aji nata Djaya (Kurang 20 Musim) Pengiran Tempuad (Lebih kurang 34 Musim) Pengiran Tempuad kemudian kawin dengan raja perempuan suku Kayan di Sungai Pimping bernama Ilahai. Aji Iram Sakti (Lebih kurang 25 Musim) di Pimping, Bulungan Aji Iram Sakti mempunyai anak perempuan yang bernama Adu Idung. Setelah Aji Iram Sakti wafat kemudian digantikan oleh kemanakannya yang bernama Aji Baran Sakti yang beristrikan Adu Idung. Dari perkawinan ini lahirlah Datoe Mancang Aji Baran Sakti (Lebih kurang 20 Musim). Datoe Mancang (Lebih kurang 49 Musim) Diriwayatkan bahwa masa pemerintahan Datoe Mancang adalah yang paling lama yaitu 49 (empat puluh sembilan) musim Abang Lemanak (Lebih kurang 20 Musim), di Baratan, Bulungan Setelah Abang Lemanak wafat, ia kemudian digantikan oleh adik bungsunya yang bernama Ikenawai (seorang wanita). Ikenawai bergelar Ratu Ulam Sari (Lebih kurang 15 Musim) Ikenawai bersuamikan Datoe Radja Laut keturunan Radja Suluk bergelar Sultan Abdurrasid. Dinasti Tengara Dahulu kala kaum suku Tidung yang bermukim di pulau Tarakan, populer juga dengan sebutan kaum Tengara, oleh karena mereka mempunyai pemimpin yang telah melahirkan Dynasty Tengara. Berdasarkan silsilah (Genealogy) yang ada bahwa, bahwa di pesisir timur pulau Tarakan yakni, di kawasan binalatung sudah ada Kerajaan Tidung kuno (The Ancient Kingdom of Tidung), kira-kira tahun 1076-1156. Kemudian berpindah ke pesisir barat pulau Tarakan yakni, di kawasan Tanjung Batu, kira-kira pada tahun 1156-1216. Lalu bergeser lagi, tetapi tetap di pesisir barat yakni, ke kawasan sungai bidang kira-kira pada tahun 1216-1394. Setelah itu berpindah lagi, yang relatif jauh dari pulau Tarakan yakni, ke kawasan Pimping bagian barat dan kawasan Tanah Kuning, yakni, sekitar tahun 1394-1557. Kerajaan Dari Dynasty Tengara ini pertama kali bertakhta kira-kira mulai pada tahun 1557-1571 berlokasi di kawasan Pamusian wilayah Tarakan Timur. Raja-raja dari Dinasti Tengara Amiril Rasyd Gelar Datoe Radja Laoet (1557-1571) Amiril Pengiran Dipati I (1571-1613) Amiril Pengiran Singa Laoet (1613-1650) Amiril Pengiran Maharajalila I (1650-1695) Amiril Pengiran Maharajalila II (1695-1731) Amiril Pengiran Dipati II (1731-1765) Amiril Pengiran Maharajadinda (1765-1782) Amiril Pengiran Maharajalila III (1782-1817) Amiril Tadjoeddin (1817-1844) Amiril Pengiran Djamaloel Kiram (1844-1867) Ratoe Intan Doera/Datoe Maoelana (1867-1896), Datoe Jaring gelar Datoe Maoelana adalah putera Sultan Bulungan Muhammad Kaharuddin (II) Datoe Adil (1896-1916)

Tuesday, 15 April 2014


Alauddin Riayat Shah Sultan of Malacca Reign Malacca Sultanate: 1477 – 1488 Predecessor Mansur Shah Successor Mahmud Shah Wives Raja Fatimah(his cousin) Tun Senaja (niece of temenggung seri maharaja) Father Mansur Shah Alauddin Riayat Shah was a sultan of the Malacca Sultanate from 1477 to 1488. He was famous for going undercover at night to personally check on the well-being of his people, as well as on the condition of his sultanate itself. On one of these nights he was even reported to have run after a thief himself. He was a very good and religious ruler and is renowned to be a fair king. But his position is envied by his brother, Raja Ahmad (the ruler of Pahang, a region under Malaccan rule), because Raja Ahmad believed that the rulership of Malacca was his right. Sultan Alauddin had many enemies, both within and outside of his court. He had a total of four children, two from each of his two wives, and this has led to his wives squabbling over the heirship to his throne. The sultan's second wife is from Indian Muslim descent. During this period, Sultan Alaudin has been facing problems with the mamak people, who were beginning to grow in power in comparison to Malays. His first advisor, Bendahara Seri Maharaja (equivalent to the modern-day prime minister) was also of mamak blood. After 11 years on the throne, Sultan Alauddin was reported in history to have died of mysterious causes. Other accounts suggest that he was poisoned in a conspiracy primarily involving Raja Ahmad, Bendahara Seri Maharaja and Tun Senaja, his second wife. His son, Raja Mahmud and his brother-in-law Raja Merlang (Tun Senaja's brother) was also thought to be involved. After his demise, the rulership went to Raja Mahmud, whom he fathered with his Tun Senaja, and denying Raja Munawar, Sultan Alaudin's firstborn son with his first wife Raja Fatimah, who was widely thought to be the true successor to the throne. In any case, the mamak bloodline finally gained control over the Malaccan Empire. However, it was not long before the Portuguese invasion came in 1511, the aftermath of which ended the Sultanate rule over the Malacca.


Sultan Ahmad Shah of Malacca (died 1513) was a sultan of what is now Malaya. The son of Sultan Mahmud Shah, Ahmad Shah's rule began in 1511 when his father stepped aside. It ended in 1513 when he died during the kingdom's war with Portugal: His father stabbed him after failing the attack to conquer Malacca. He was succeeded in rule by his father. Sultan Ahmad Shah was also involved in the Putri Gunung Ledang Myth where the putri requested a bowl of Raja Ahmad's blood in order to marry her. Malacca sultanate The Sultanate of Malacca كسلطانن ملايو ملاك Kesultanan Melayu Melaka 1400–1511 ↓ The extent of the Sultanate in the 15th century Capital Malacca Languages Malay language Religion Islam Government Monarchy Sultan - 1400–1414 Iskandar Shah - 1414–1424 Megat Iskandar Shah - 1424–1444 Muhammad Shah - 1444–1446 Abu Syahid Shah - 1446–1459 Muzaffar Shah - 1459–1477 Mansur Shah - 1477–1488 Alauddin Riayat Shah - 1488–1511 Mahmud Shah - 1511–1513 Ahmad Shah Bendahara - 1400–1412 (first) Tun Perpatih Permuka Berjajar - 1445–1456 Tun Ali - 1456–1498 Tun Perak - 1500–1510 Tun Mutahir - 1510–1511 Paduka Tuan History - Established 1400 - Portuguese invasion 1511 Currency :- Tin ingot, native gold and silver coins The Malacca Sultanate (Malay: Kesultanan Melayu Melaka; Jawi script: كسلطانن ملايو ملاك) was a Malay sultanate centered in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia. Conventional historical thesis marks circa 1400 as the founding year of the sultanate by a renegade Malay Raja of Singapura, Iskandar Shah, who was also known in certain accounts as "Parameswara". At the height of the sultanate's power in the 15th century, its capital grew into one of the most important entrepots of its time, with territory covering much of the Malay Peninsula, Riau Islands and a significant portion of the east coast of Sumatra.[1] As a bustling international trading port, Malacca emerged as a center for Islamic learning and dissemination, and encouraged the development of the Malay language, literature and arts. It heralded the golden age of Malay sultanates in the archipelago, in which Classical Malay became the lingua franca of the Maritime Southeast Asia and Jawi script became the primary medium for cultural, religious and intellectual exchange. It is through these intellectual, spiritual and cultural developments, the Malaccan era witnessed the enculturation of a Malay identity,[2][3] the Malayisation of the region and the subsequent formation of an Alam Melayu.[4] In 1511, the capital of Malacca fell to the Portuguese Empire, forcing the last Sultan, Mahmud Shah (r. 1488–1511), to retreat to the further reaches of his empire, where his progeny established new ruling dynasties, Johor and Perak. The legacy of the sultanate remained, with significance lies in its far-reaching political and cultural legacy, which, arguably, continues to be felt in modern times. For centuries, Malacca has been held up as an exemplar of Malay-Muslim civilization. It established systems of trade, diplomacy, and governance that persisted well into the 19th century, and introduced concepts such as daulat – a distinctly Malay notion of sovereignty – that continues to shape contemporary understanding of Malay kingship.[