Thursday, 7 August 2014
Mengenal Kesultanan PekanTua, Kampar Candi Muara Takus, Desa Muara Takus, XIII Koto Kampar Kisah ini saye ambil dari satu laman blog yang berkaitan dengan tanah air kampar.. Raja yang berkuasa iaitu Sultan Mahmud Syah I mengundurkan dirinya ke Muar (Johor), kemudian ke Bintan dan sekitar tahun 1526 M sampai ke Pekantua Kampar di Riau. Keadaan Pekantua Kampar saat itu juga sedang berkabung karena Raja Abdullah (1511-1515 M), raja Pekantua Kampar yang masih keluarga dekat Sultan Mahmud Syah I, tertangkap saat berjuang membantu melawan Portugis. Beliau akhirnya dibuang ke Gowa di Sulawesi Selatan. Ketika Sultan Mahmud Syah I sampai di Pekantua (1526 M) beliau langsung dinobatkan menjadi Raja Pekantua Kampar (1526-1528 M). 2 tahun sesudahnya beliau mangkat dan diberi gelar "Marhum Kampar". Makamnya terletak di Pekantua Kampar dan sudah berkali-kali dipugar oleh raja-raja Pelalawan. Pemugaran terakhir dilakukan oleh Pemerintah Daerah (Kabupaten) Pelalawan, Propinsi Riau dan pemerintah Negeri Melaka. Sultan Mahmud Syah I setelah mangkat segera digantikan oleh putera mahkota dari permaisurinya Tun Fatimah, yang bernama Raja Ali, bergelar "Sultan Alauddin Riayat Syah II". Tak lama kemudian, beliau meninggalkan Pekantua ke Tanah Semananjung, mendirikan negeri Kuala Johor, beliau dianggap pendiri Kerajaan Johor. Sebelum meninggalkan Pekantua, beliau menunjuk dan mengangkat Mangkubumi Pekantua (1530-1551 M), yang bernama Tun Perkasa dengan gelar "Raja Muda Tun Perkasa". Dan dilanjutkan Tun Hitam (1551-1575 M) serta Tun Megat (1575-1590 M).
Friday, 25 July 2014
Kerajaan Samudra Pasai Di dalam Hikayat ini juga, baginda mempunyai dua orang cucu iaitu Malikul Mahmud dan Malikul Mansur. Selepas kemangkatan Malikul Zahir, Sultan Malikussalih melantik Malikul Mahmud sebagai pemerintah Pasai sementara adindanya, Malikul Mansur dijaga oleh Malikussalih sendiri. Beberapa tahun kemudian, Malikul Mansur telah dilantik oleh nendanya sebagai pemerintah baru kerajaan Samudera. Hikayat Raja-raja Pasai menceritakan bahawa Malikul Mansur telah diturunkan takhta oleh kekandanya, Malikul Mahmud serta dibuang negeri kerana kesalahan baginda mengambil perempuan di Istana Pasai. Selepas itu, Malikul Mahmud telah memasukkan Samudera ke dalam kerajaannya. Kerajaan Samudra Pasai didirikan pada abad ke-11 oleh Meurah Khair. Kerajaan ini terletak dipesisir Timur Laut Aceh. Kerajaan ini merupakan kerajaan Islam pertama di Indonesia. Pendiri dan raja pertama Kerajaan Samudra Pasai adalah Meurah Khair. Ia bergelar Maharaja Mahmud Syah (1042-1078). Pengganti Meurah Khair adalah Maharaja Mansyur Syah dari tahun 1078-1133. Pengganti Maharaja Mansyur Syah adalah Maharaja Ghiyasyuddin Syah dari tahun 1133-1155. Raja Kerajaan Samudra Pasai berikutnya dadalah Meurah Noe yang bergelar Maharaja Nuruddin berkuasa dari tahun1155-1210. Raja ini dikenal juga dengan sebutan Tengku Samudra atau Sulthan Nazimuddin Al-Kamil. Sultan ini sebenarnya berasal dari Mesir yang ditugaskan sebagai laksamana untuk merebut pelabuhan di Gujarat. Raja ini tidak memiliki keturunan sehingga pada saat wafat, kerajaan Samudra Pasai dilanda kekacauan karena perebutan kekuasaan. Meurah Silu bergelar Sultan Malik-al Saleh (1285-1297). Meurah Silu adalah keturunan Raja Perlak (sekarang Malaysia) yang mendirikan dinasti kedua kerajaan Samudra Pasai. Pada masa pemerintahannya, system pemerintahan kerajaan dan angkatan perang laut dan darat sudah terstruktur rapi. Kerajaan mengalami kemakmuran, terutama setelah Pelabuhan Pasai dibuka. Hubungan Kerajaan Samudra Pasai dan Perlak berjalan harmonis. Meurah Silu memperkokoh hubungan ini dengan menikahi putri Ganggang Sari, anak Raja Perlak. Meurah Silu berhasil memperkuat pengaruh Kerajaan Samudra Pasai di pantai timur Aceh dan berkembang menjadi kerajaan perdagangan yang kuat di Selat Malaka. Raja-raja Samudra Pasai selanjutnya adalah Sultan Muhammad Malik Zahir (1297-1326), Sultan Mahmud Malik Zahir (1326-1345), Sultan Manshur Malik Zahir (1345-1346), dan Sultan Ahmad Malik Zahir (1346-1383). Raja selanjutnya adalah Sultan Zainal Abidin (1383-1405). Pada masa pemerintahannya, kekuasaan kerajaan meliputi daerah Kedah di Semenanjung Malaya. Sultan Zainal Abidin sangat aktif menyebarkan pengaruh Islam kepulau Jawa dan Sulawesi dengan mengirimkan ahli-ahli dakwah, seperti Maulana Malik Ibrahim dan Maulana Ishak.
Thursday, 24 July 2014
Tin Coin Maters Gathering At Bukit Antarabangsa Ampang. 1-9-2013. Today, 1st of September 2013,my Dickson Niew Collection Corner at Subang Jaya was closed because I was invited to attend a very special gathering at Bukit Antarabangsa, Ampang. Master Haji Mohd Rani, a specialist in Malay Sultanate coins organised a lunch gathering at his home at Ampang and invited a few renown masters tin coin to attend. Among masters that he invited were Master Ishar A Latif, Master Adnan,Master Wei Yen Kong, King Miharbi, Sharil and Rafiuddin AJ. For the first time I was asked to join them.I am a newbie in Malay Sultanate coinage.I feel proud to be invited to attend such a gathering. I learnt a lot while listened to their discussion and going through their personal collection.They have many stories to share,a lot of experience for me to absorb and to adopt. I was lucky to be able to view so many rare pieces of Sultanate tin coins in one such gathering.I do hope I will be invited again in their next gathering. I hereby, would like to say thank you to all tin coin masters that I met today. Read more: http://dniewcollectors.blogspot.com/2013/09/tin-coin-experts-gathering-1st.html#ixzz38PGeiwfI Al Fatihah untuk arwah Ishar Latif, mula berkenalan dengan arwah sejak tahun 1979 semasa bertugas di Jabatan Telekom Malaysia ,kehilangan yang memang sukar untuk dicari ganti,pakar dalam bidang numismatik dari semua aspek matawang Malaysia terutama matawang kesultanan Melayu.
Tuesday, 27 May 2014
Runtuhnya Kerajaan Melayu Singgora Pada kali ini saya ingin memaparkan satu artikel mengenai sebuah kerajaan Melayu yang telah lama lenyap dari peta tanah semenanjung emas. Pada masa dahulu kerajaan ini pernah menjadi salah satu daripada kerajaan yang terkuat dan terkaya di utara semenanjung emas. Namun kegemilangannya tidak bertahan lama akibat dari dengki dan dendam kerajaan yang berjiran dengannya nun jauh di utara. Dalam beberapa tahun sahaja kerajaan ini berjaya dimusnahkan. Sehingga hari ini orang Melayu bukan lagi penduduk majoriti di Singgora atau Songkla. Sebaliknya lebih ramai orang Thai yang mendiami negeri ini. Malahan ramai anak-anak Melayu Singgora yang tidak lagi fasih berbahasa Melayu Jawi. Sebenarnya sejarah awal Singgora sudah terdapat pada catatan awal China pada abad ke 6 dan 7 M lagi. Selain itu Singgora juga disebut Singor, Sanjura, Sanjur, Senggora, Sung-kra dan Sung-Ch’ia. Tersebut dalam Salasilah Sultan Sulaiman (Sai Sakun Sultan Sulaiman) dikisahkan tentang seorang saudagar Parsi bernama Datuk Muzaffar yang datang dari Jawa Tengah (ada catatan lain menyebut Datuk Monggol) telah bermastautin di Sitingpra, Singgora. Rombongan ulama Parsi ini kemudiannya berpindah ke Teluk Singgora pada tahun 1603 M dan mendirikan kerajaan Singgora Darussalam (Hua Khoa Deng). Ulama tersebut dilantik pengikutnya sebagai pemerintah bergelar Sultan Muzaffar Syah yang mentadbir Singgora. Beliau juga dikatakan adalah seorang panglima tentera yang fasih selok-belok ketenteraan dan bijak dalam strategi pentadbiran. Tidak mustahil wilayah jajahan baginda semakin meluas meliputi Patalung (Pathalung) Terang (Trang) dan Setul (Satun). Ketika zaman ini Singgora menjadi tumpuan pra pedagang dari Eropah, Arab, Parsi, China, Jepun dan seluruh nusantara. Apabila Sultan Muzaffar Syah mangkat pada tahun 1618, baginda diganti oleh putranya Sultan Sulaiman Syah. Sultan Sulaiman meneruskan usaha-usaha ayahandanya dengan membina tembok-tembok pertahanan dan bedil-bedil. Baginda sadar, kemakmuran dan kemasyhuran Singgora akan mendatangkan cemburu musuh-musuhnya. Baginda juga berusaha menggali terusan yang menghubungkan Teluk Singgora di pantai timur dengan Laut Andaman di pantai barat. Namun usaha juga gagal kerana adanya banjaran gunung yang besar. Sepanjang pemerintahan Sultan Sulaiman, Siam (Thai) tidak henti-henti melakukan serangan dan pencerobohan untuk menawan negeri makmur ini. Namun semuanya gagal dengan izin Allah. Apabila baginda sultan muzaffar mangkat, baginda diganti pula oleh putranya Sultan Mustaffa Syah. Ketika pemerintahan baginda, Siam menyerang Singgora habis-habisan lagi. Angkatan Siam telah diketuai oleh Phraya Ranchodo dan raja Siam ketika itu Raja Narai Maharaj yang baru berjaya membebaskan Ayuthia dari jajahan Burma. Siam turut dibantu tentera upahan Portugis dan Belanda. Kerajaan Singgora akhirnya dapat ditewaskan pada tahun 1687 M. Ramai Orang Melayu-Islam Singgora ditawan dan dibawa ke Ayuthia. Siam juga merampas sepucuk bedil kepunyaan Sultan Sulaiman. Sultan Sulaiman dan dua adindanya Hassan dan Hussein dipindahkan ke Chaiya (Cahaya). Sultan Sulaiman kemudian dilantik menjadi pemerintah wakil Siam di Chaiya dengan gelaran Phraya Picit Phalodi Sipicai Songkram, Hussein pula dilantik sebagai Raja Muda Chaiya. Putra mahkota Singgora, manakala Taufik dibawa ke Ayuhtia dan Hassan dilantik sebagai laksamana tentera Siam oleh raja Narai Maharaj. Hal ini menunjukkan bahawa raja narai bersifat belas berbanding leluhurnya dan keturunannya kemudian yang bertindak kejam membunuh kaum kerabat kerajaan yang ditawannya. Melalui Salasilah Sultan Sulaiman, baginda menyatakan terdapat kerabat dan waris baginda yang dipaksa dan terpaksa menganut agama Buddha ketika berada di bawah tekanan Siam. Hal ini terjadi pada tahun 1687, titik tolak keruntuhan kerajaan Singgora oleh kerajaan Siam laknatullah. Terdapat catatan daripada seorang penulis Cina bernama (1782) Hsieh Ch’ing Kao tentang penduduk Songkhla, yang asalnya kerajaan Singgora, sebuah negara Melayu-Islam. Dikatakan bahawa penduduk Melayu tidak memakan daging babi dan ketika berjalan sentiasa membawa senjata keris tersisip di pinggang. Kaum wanitanya bertutup kepala dan lelaki berseluar. Semasa bekerja mereka menutup tubuh sampai ke tubuh dengan pakaian yang dipanggil sha-long ( sarung ). Pada abad ke 19, orang Melayu telah hampir pupus di Singgora ( Songkhla ) dan hanya meninggalkan bekas-bekas zaman kegemilangannya yakni Hua Khao Deng dan pelabuhan Lem Son sebagai kenang-kenangan. Pernah berlaku satu peristiwa pada zaman Singgora telah berjaya ditawan Thai dan berada dalam pentadbiran ligor. Pemerintahnya terpaksa tunduk dengan hasutan LIGOR yang menjadi sekutu kuatnya dan kemudian terpaksa pula mengikut arahan supaya melancarkan serangan keatas KEDAH dan PATTANI. Selain itu dalam tahun 1808M Singgora diarahkan untuk menyerang Pattani yang bangkit memberontak yang diketuai oleh Datuk Pengkalan, SIAM mengarahkan Kedah membantu Singgora melanggar Pattani, angkatan Kedah berkumpul di daerah Padang Terap namun para pembesar Kedah dan panglima bertelagah kerana ada yang tidak rela mengkhianati bangsa seagama sendiri iaitu orang-orang Pattani, jadinya hanya satu 'team' saja yang masuk ke Yala untuk membantu Singgora namun angkatan kedah terbabit dah terlambat kerana angkatan Singgora dah berjaya mengusir dan mematahkan pemberontakan Dato Pengkalan tanpa bantuan Kedah. Jadi pemerintah Singgora marah dan menahan angkatan Kedah dari pulang. Setelah dimaklumkan kepada Sultan Kedah maka dihantar pembesar untuk berunding dengan Singgora mengatakan ada salah faham berlaku dan memohon maaf, lalu diberi peluang oleh Singgora dan dilepaskan angkatan Kedah untuk pulang. Selain itu Singgora juga amat cemburukan Kedah sama seperti Ligor kerana Raja Siam memuji kehandalan Kedah semasa mematahkan serangan Burma di Phuket awal 1813M dimana angkatan Ligor dan Singgora hanya memerhati disisi dan dibelakang angkatan Kedah, dan apabila angkatan Burma tewas dibedil dan dirodok panglima-panglima Kedah mereka pon menerpa masuk dan membunuh semua saki baki tentera Burma, pandai depa nak dapat nama, depa ni berani sebab ramai saja. Terdapat sebuah peninggalan kerajaan Islam Singgora yang masih wujud hingga kini yang amat unik ceritanya. Ia adalah mengenai sebuah bedil atau meriam milik Sultan Suleiman. Almarhum Amin Sweeney pernah menterjemahkan syair yang ditulis dalam bahasa Arab (ketika pemerintahan Sultan Sulaiman Syah tahun 1618) pada bedil baginda. Bedil itu sekarang tersimpan di hadapan Royal Chelsea Hospital, London. Riwayat bedil tersebut berada di London adalah seperti berikut. Semasa tentera Siam mengalahkan Singgora pada tahun 1689 M, bedil tersebut telah dirampas dari Sultan Sulaiman dan dibawa ke Ayuthia. Bedil tersebut digunakan oleh Siam untuk memerangi Burma (Myanmar) sehingga Ayuthia ditewaskan oleh Burma pada tahun 1767. Bedil itu kemudian dibawa ke Burma sebelum dirampas pula oleh Inggeris dalam perang Inggeris-Burma. Pada tahun 1886, bedil itu dibawa pulang ke England. Begitulah bangsa-bangsa yang kononnya bijak dan kuat berebutan bedil buatan Melayu tersebut yang pada hemat saya bukanlah sebesar bedil Sri Pattani atau bedil turki Uthmaniah pun. Di atas permukaan Bedil itu terpahat tulisan arab jawi yang unik. Ukuran berat yang tercatat pada larasnya ialah 1 bandar, 2 pikul dan 4 kati. Bertarikh Isnin 4 Zulkaedah 1063 H bersamaan 26 September 1653 M. Terdapat juga catatan dalam bahasa Burma yang bertulis ‘Diperolehi semasa menawan Dwarawati (Siam) pada tahun 1125 H atau 1766 M’. Keistimewaan inskripsi pada bedil ini ialah ianya ditulis dalam bentuk syair Melayu-Arab dan diyakini merupakan syair tertua pernah tercatat pada sebuah bedil. Menurut sejarahnya bedil itu dipunyai Singgora selama 34 tahun, di Siam selama 79 tahun, di Burma 120 tahun dan di England lebih 120 tahun. Demikianlah keagungan Melayu-Islam Singgora yang cuba dihapuskan sejarahnya oleh penjajah-penjajah kafir laknatullah, namun keindahan dan kehebatan bedil atau meriam tersebut akhirnya menawan hati mereka untuk menyimpan bedil tersebut dan tidak mencairkannya atau memusnahkannya. sekian wallah hu a'lam.
Friday, 23 May 2014
Wednesday, 30 April 2014
History According to the 16th-century Portuguese historian Emanuel Godinho de Erédia, the site of the old city of Malacca was named after the Myrobalans, fruit-bearing trees along the banks of a river called Airlele (Ayer Leleh). The Airlele river was said to originate from Buquet China (present-day Bukit Cina). Eredia cited that the city was founded by Permicuri (i.e. Parameswara) the first King of Malacca in 1411. The capture of Malacca Further information: Capture of Malacca (1511) The news of Malacca's wealth attracted the attention of Manuel I, King of Portugal and he sent Admiral Diogo Lopes de Sequeira to find Malacca, to make a trade compact with its ruler as Portugal's representative east of India. The first European to reach Malacca and Southeast Asia, Sequeira arrived in Malacca in 1509. Although he was initially well received by Sultan Mahmud Shah trouble however quickly ensued. The general feeling of rivalry between Islam and Christianity was invoked by a group of Goa Muslims in the sultan's court after the Portuguese had captured Goa. The international Muslim trading community convinced Mahmud that the Portuguese were a grave threat. Mahmud subsequently captured several of his men, killed others and attempted to attack the four Portuguese ships, although they escaped. As the Portuguese had found in India, conquest would be the only way they could establish themselves in Malacca. In April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goa to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships. The Viceroy made a number of demands—one of which was for permission to build a fortress as a Portuguese trading post near the city. The Sultan refused all the demands. Conflict was unavoidable, and after 40 days of fighting, Malacca fell to the Portuguese on 24 August. A bitter dispute between Sultan Mahmud and his son Sultan Ahmad also weighed down the Malaccan side. Following the defeat of the Malacca Sultanate in 15 August 1511 in the capture of Malacca, Afonso de Albuquerque sought to erect a permanent form of fortification in anticipation of the counterattacks by Sultan Mahmud. A fortress was designed and constructed encompassing a hill, lining the edge of the sea shore, on the south east of the river mouth, on the former site of the Sultan's palace. Albuquerque remained in Malacca until November 1511 preparing its defences against any Malay counterattack. Sultan Mahmud Shah was forced to flee Malacca. A Portuguese port in a hostile region As the first base of European Christian trading kingdom in Southeast Asia, it was surrounded by numerous emerging native Muslim states. Also, with hostile initial contact with the local Malay policy, Portuguese Malacca faced severe hostility. They endure years of battles started by Malay sultans who wanted to get rid of the Portuguese and reclaim their land. The Sultan made several attempts to retake the capital. He rallied the support from his ally the Sultanate of Demak in Java who, in 1511, agreed to send naval forces to assist. Led by Pati Unus, the Sultan of Demak, the combined Malay–Java efforts failed and were fruitless. The Portuguese retaliated and forced the sultan to flee to Pahang. Later, the sultan sailed to Bintan Island and established a new capital there. With a base established, the sultan rallied the disarrayed Malay forces and organized several attacks and blockades against the Portuguese's position. Frequent raids on Malacca caused the Portuguese severe hardship. In 1521 the second Demak campaign to assist the Malay Sultan to retake Malacca was launched, however once again failed with the cost of the Demak Sultan's life. He was later remembered as Pangeran Sabrang Lor or the Prince who crossed (the Java Sea) to North (Malay Peninsula). The raids helped convince the Portuguese that the exiled sultan's forces must be silenced. A number of attempts were made to suppress the Malay forces, but it wasn't until 1526 that the Portuguese finally razed Bintan to the ground. The sultan then retreated to Kampar in Riau, Sumatra where he died two years later. He left behind two sons named Muzaffar Shah and Alauddin Riayat Shah II. Muzaffar Shah was invited by the people in the north of the peninsula to become their ruler, establishing the Sultanate of Perak. Meanwhile, Mahmud's other son, Alauddin succeeded his father and made a new capital in the south. His realm was the Johor Sultanate, the successor of Malacca. Several attempts to remove Malacca from Portuguese rule were made by the Sultan of Johor. A request sent to Java, in 1550, resulted in Queen Kalinyamat, the regent of Jepara, sending 4,000 soldiers in 40 ships to meet the Johor sultan's request to take Malacca. The Jepara troops later joined forces with the Malay alliance and manage to rally around 200 warships. The combined forces attacked from the north and captured most of Malacca, but the Portuguese managed to retaliate and force back the invading forces. Malay alliance troops were thrown back to the sea, while the Jepara troops remained on shore. Only after their leaders were slain were the Jepara troops withdrawn. The battle continued on the beach and in the sea and killed more than 2,000 Jepara soldiers. A storm stranded two Jepara ships on the shore of Malacca, and they fell prey to the Portuguese. Fewer than half of the Jepara soldiers managed to leave Malacca. In 1567, Prince Husain Ali I Riayat Syah from the Sultanate of Aceh launched a naval attack to oust the Portuguese from Malacca, but this once again ended in failure. In 1574 a combined attack from Aceh Sultanate and Javanese Jepara tried again to capture Malacca from the Portuguese, but ended in failure due to poor coordination. Competition from other ports such as Johor saw Asian traders bypass Malacca and the city began to decline as a trading port. Rather than achieving their ambition of dominating it, the Portuguese had fundamentally disrupted the organisation of the Asian trade network. Rather than a centralised port of exchange of Asian wealth exchange, or a Malay state to police the Strait of Malacca that made it safe for commercial traffic, trade was now scattered over a number of ports amongst bitter warfare in the Straits. Chinese military retaliation against Portugal The Malay Malacca Sultanate was a tributary state and ally to Ming Dynasty China. When Portugal conquered Malacca in 1511, the Chinese responded with violent force against the Portuguese. Following the attack, the Chinese refused to accept a Portuguese embassy. The Chinese Imperial Government imprisoned and executed multiple Portuguese diplomatic envoys after torturing them in Guangzhou. A Malaccan envoy had informed the Chinese of the Portuguese seizure of Malacca, which the Chinese responded to with hostility toward the Portuguese. The Malaccan envoy told the Chinese of the deception the Portuguese used, disguising plans for conquering territory as mere trading activities, and told his tale of deprivations at the hands of the Portuguese. Malacca was under Chinese protection and the Portuguese invasion angered the Chinese. Due to the Malaccan Sultan lodging a complaint against the Portuguese invasion to the Chinese Emperor, the Portuguese were greeted with hostility from the Chinese when they arrived in China. The Sultan's complaint caused "a great deal of trouble" to Portuguese in China. The Chinese were very "unwelcoming" to the Portuguese. The Malaccan Sultan, based in Bintan after fleeing Malacca, sent a message to the Chinese, which combined with Portuguese banditry and violent activity in China, led the Chinese authorities to execute 23 Portuguese and torture the rest of them in jails. After the Portuguese set up posts for trading in China and committed piratical activities and raids in China, the Chinese responded with the complete extermination of the Portuguese in Ningbo and Quanzhou Pires, a Portuguese trade envoy, was among those who died in the Chinese dungeons. Chinese boycott and counterattacks Chinese traders boycotted Malacca after it fell under Portuguese control, some Chinese in Java assisted in Muslim attempts to reconquer the city from Portugal using ships. The Java Chinese participation in retaking Malacca was recorded in "The Malay Annals of Semarang and Cerbon" trading the Chinese did business with Malays and Javanese instead of the Portuguese. Dutch conquest and the end of Portuguese Malacca Further information: Battle of Malacca (1641) In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company (Dutch: Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie, VOC) began contesting Portuguese power in the East. At that time, the Portuguese had transformed Malacca into an impregnable fortress, the Fortaleza de Malaca, controlling access to the sea lanes of the Straits of Malacca and the spice trade there. The Dutch started by launching small incursions and skirmishes against the Portuguese. The first serious attempt was the siege of Malacca in 1606 by the third VOC fleet from Holland with eleven ships, led by Admiral Cornelis Matelief de Jonge that lead to the naval battle of Cape Rachado. Although the Dutch were routed, the Portuguese fleet of Martim Afonso de Castro, the Viceroy of Goa; suffered heavier casualties and the battle rallied the forces of the Sultanate of Johor in an alliance with the Dutch and later on with the Aceh Sultanate. In early 17th century, the Sultanate of Aceh grew into a regional power with formidable naval force and regarded Portuguese Malacca as potential threat. In 1629, Iskandar Muda of Aceh Sultanate sent several hundred ships to attack Malacca, but the mission was a devastating failure. According to Portuguese sources, all of his ships were destroyed along with 19,000 men. The Dutch with their local allies assaulted and finally wrested Malacca from the Portuguese in January 1641. This combined Dutch-Johor-Aceh efforts effectively destroyed the last bastion of Portuguese power, reducing their influence in the archipelago. The Dutch settled in the city as Dutch Malacca, however the Dutch had no intention to make Malacca their main base, and concentrated on building Batavia (today Jakarta) as their headquarters in the orient instead. The Portuguese ports in spice producing area of Mollucas also fell to the Dutch in following years, with the last Portuguese colony remained and confined only in Portuguese Timor until 20th century. Fortaleza de Malaca The early core of the fortress system was a quadrilateral tower called Fortaleza de Malaca. Measurement was given as 10 fathoms per side with a height of 40 fathoms. It was constructed at the foot of the fortress hill, next to the sea. To its east was constructed a circular wall of mortar and stone with a well in the middle of the enclosure. Over the years, constructions began to fully fortify the fortress hill. The pentagonal system began at the farthest point of the cape near south east of the river mouth, towards the west of the Fortaleza. At this point two ramparts were built at right angles to each other lining the shores. The one running northward toward the river mouth was 130 fathoms in length to the bastion of São Pedro while the other one ran for 75 fathoms to the east, curving inshore, ending at the gate and bastion of Santiago. From the bastion of São Pedro the rampart turned north east 150 fathoms past the Custom House Terrace gateway ending at the northernmost point of the fortress, the bastion of São Domingos. From the gateway of São Domingos, an earth rampart ran south-easterly for 100 fathoms ending at the bastion of the Madre de Deus. From here, beginning at the gate of Santo António, past the bastion of the Virgins, the rampart ended at the gateway of Santiago. Overall the city enclosure was 655 fathoms and 10 palms (short) of a fathom. Gateways Four gateways were built for the city; Porta de Santiago The gateway of the Custom House Terrace Porta de São Domingos Porta de Santo António Of these four gateways only two were in common use and open to traffic, the Gate of Santo António linking to the suburb of Yler and the western gate at the Custom House Terrace, giving access to Tranqueira and its bazaar. Destruction Present day Porta de Santiago. After almost 300 years of existence, in 1806, the British, unwilling to maintain the fortress and wary of letting other European powers taking control of it, ordered its slow destruction. The fort was almost totally demolished but for the timely intervention of Sir Stamford Raffles visiting Malacca in 1810. The only remnants of the earliest Portuguese fortress in Southeast Asia is the Porta de Santiago, now known as the A Famosa. Malacca Town during the Portuguese Era Outside of the fortified town center lie the three suburbs of Malacca. The suburb of Upe (Upih), generally known as Tranqueira (modern day Tengkera) from the rampart of the fortress. The other two suburb were Yler (Hilir) or Tanjonpacer (Tanjung Pasir) and the suburb of Sabba. Tranqueira Tranqueira was the most important suburb of Malacca. The suburb was rectangular in shape, with a northern walled boundary, the straits of Malacca to the south and the river of Malacca (Rio de Malaca) and the fortaleza's wall to the east. It was the main residential quarters of the city. However, in war, the residence of the quarters would be evacuated to the fortress. Tranqueira was divided into a further two parishes, São Tomé and São Estêvão. The parish of S.Tomé was called Campon Chelim (Malay: Kampung Keling). It was described that this area was populated by the Chelis of Choromandel. The other suburb of São Estêvão was also called Campon China (Kampung Cina). Erédia described the houses as made of timber but roofed by tiles. A stone bridge with sentry crosses the river Malacca to provide access to the Malacca Fortress via the eastern Custome House Terrace. The center of trade of the city was also located in Tranqueira near the beach on the mouth of the river called the Bazaar of the Jaos (Jowo/Jawa i.e. Javanese). In the present day, this part of the city is called Tengkera. Yler The district of Yler (Hilir) roughly covered Buquet China (Bukit Cina) and the south-eastern coastal area. The Well of Buquet China was one of the most important water sources for the community. Notable landmarks included the Church of the Madre De Deus and the Convent of the Capuchins of São Francisco. Other notable landmarks included Buquetpiatto (Bukit Piatu). The boundaries of this unwalled suburb were said to extend as far as Buquetpipi and Tanjonpacer. Tanjonpacer (Malay: Tanjung Pasir) was later renamed Ujong Pasir. A community descended from Portuguese settlers is still located here in present day Malacca. However, this suburb of Yler is now known as Banda Hilir. Modern land reclamations (for the purpose of building the commercial district of Melaka Raya) have, however, denied Banda Hilir the access to the sea that it formerly had. Sabba The houses of this suburb were built along the edges of the river. Some of the original Muslim Malay inhabitants of Malacca lived in the swamps of Nypeiras tree, where they were known to make Nypa (Nipah) wine by distillation for trade. This suburb was considered the most rural, being a transition to the Malacca hinterland, where timber and charcoal traffic passed through into the city. Several Christian parishes also lay outside the city along the river; São Lázaro, Our Lady of Guadalupe, Our Lady of Hope. While Muslim Malays inhabited the farmlands deeper into the hinterland. In later periods of Dutch, British and modern day Malacca, the name of Sabba was made obsolete. However, its area encompassed parts of what is now Banda Kaba, Bunga Raya and Kampung Jawa; and the modern city center of Malacca Portuguese Immigration The Portuguese also shipped over many Orfas del Rei to Portuguese colonies overseas in Africa and India, and also to Portuguese Malacca. Orfas del Rei literally translates to "Orphans of the King", and they were Portuguese girl orphans sent to overseas colonies to marry either Portuguese settlers or natives with high status. Portuguese administration of Malacca Malacca was administered by a Governor (a Captain-Major), who was appointed for a term of three-years, as well as a Bishop and church dignitaries representing the Episcopal See, municipal officers, Royal Officials for finance and justice and a local native Bendahara to administer the native Muslims and foreigners under the Portuguese jurisdiction. Flag Portugal (1640).svg Captains-Major of Malacca (1512–1641) Captains-major From Until Rui de Brito Patalim 1512 1514 Jorge de Albuquerque (1st time) 1514 1516 Jorge de Brito 1516 1517 Nuno Vaz Pereira 1517 1518 Afonso Lopes da Costa 1518 1519 Garcia de Sá (1st time) 1519 1521 Jorge de Albuquerque (2nd time) 1521 1525 Pero de Mascarenhas 1525 1526 Jorge Cabral 1526 1528 Pero de Faria 1528 1529
The Sultanate of Malacca كسلطانن ملايو ملاك Kesultanan Melayu Melaka 1400–1511 ↓ The extent of the Sultanate in the 15th century Capital Malacca Languages Malay language Religion Islam Government Monarchy Sultan - 1400–1414 Iskandar Shah - 1414–1424 Megat Iskandar Shah - 1424–1444 Muhammad Shah - 1444–1446 Abu Syahid Shah - 1446–1459 Muzaffar Shah - 1459–1477 Mansur Shah - 1477–1488 Alauddin Riayat Shah - 1488–1511 Mahmud Shah - 1511–1513 Ahmad Shah Bendahara - 1400–1412 (first) Tun Perpatih Permuka Berjajar - 1445–1456 Tun Ali - 1456–1498 Tun Perak - 1500–1510 Tun Mutahir - 1510–1511 Paduka Tuan History - Established 1400 - Portuguese invasion 1511 Currency Tin ingot, native gold and silver coins Preceded by Succeeded by Kingdom of Singapura Johor Sultanate Perak Sultanate Portuguese Malacca Dutch East Indies Today part of Malaysia Singapore Thailand Indonesia The Malacca Sultanate (Malay: Kesultanan Melayu Melaka; Jawi script: كسلطانن ملايو ملاك) was a Malay sultanate centered in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia. Conventional historical thesis marks circa 1400 as the founding year of the sultanate by a renegade Malay Raja of Singapura, Iskandar Shah, who was also known in certain accounts as "Parameswara". At the height of the sultanate's power in the 15th century, its capital grew into one of the most important entrepots of its time, with territory covering much of the Malay Peninsula, Riau Islands and a significant portion of the east coast of Sumatra. As a bustling international trading port, Malacca emerged as a center for Islamic learning and dissemination, and encouraged the development of the Malay language, literature and arts. It heralded the golden age of Malay sultanates in the archipelago, in which Classical Malay became the lingua franca of the Maritime Southeast Asia and Jawi script became the primary medium for cultural, religious and intellectual exchange. It is through these intellectual, spiritual and cultural developments, the Malaccan era witnessed the enculturation of a Malay identity, the Malayisation of the region and the subsequent formation of an Alam Melayu. In 1511, the capital of Malacca fell to the Portuguese Empire, forcing the last Sultan, Mahmud Shah (r. 1488–1511), to retreat to the further reaches of his empire, where his progeny established new ruling dynasties, Johor and Perak. The legacy of the sultanate remained, with significance lies in its far-reaching political and cultural legacy, which, arguably, continues to be felt in modern times. For centuries, Malacca has been held up as an exemplar of Malay-Muslim civilization. It established systems of trade, diplomacy, and governance that persisted well into the 19th century, and introduced concepts such as daulat – a distinctly Malay notion of sovereignty – that continues to shape contemporary understanding of Malay kingship. Contents 1 History 1.1 Early foundation 1.2 Growth 1.3 Golden era 1.4 Portuguese invasion 2 Post-1511 2.1 Portuguese Malacca 2.2 Chinese retaliation 2.3 Successors of Malacca 3 Administration 4 Islam and Malay culture 5 Trade 6 Legacy 7 See also 8 References 9 Bibliography History Early foundation The series of raids launched by the Chola Empire in the 11th century had weakened the once glorious Malay empire of Srivijaya. By the end of the 13th century, the already fragmented Srivijaya caught the attention of the expansionist Javanese King, Kertanegara of Singhasari. In 1275, he decreed the Pamalayu expedition to overrun Sumatra. By 1288, Singhasari naval expeditionary forces successfully sacked Jambi and Palembang and brought Srivijaya to its knees. The complete destruction of Srivijaya caused the diaspora of the Srivijayan princes and nobles. Rebellions against the Javanese rule ensued and attempts were made by the fleeing Malay princes to revive the empire, which left the area of southern Sumatra in chaos and desolation. According to the Malay Annals, a fleeing prince from Palembang named Sang Nila Utama who claimed to be of mixed Malay-Indo-Persian descent, took refuge in the island of Bintan for several years before he set sail and landed on Temasek in 1299. The Orang Laut (Sea People), famous for their loyal services to Srivijaya, eventually made him Raja of a new kingdom called Singapura. In the 14th century, Singapura developed concurrently with the Pax Mongolica era and rose from a small trading outpost into a center of international trade with strong ties with the Yuan Dynasty. Its wealth and success however, alarmed two regional powers at that time, Ayuthaya from the north and Majapahit from the south. As a result, the kingdom's fortified capital was attacked by at least two major foreign invasions before it was finally sacked by Majapahit in 1398. The fifth and last king, Iskandar Shah fled to the west coast of Malay Peninsula. Iskandar Shah (also known as "Parameswara" in some accounts) fled north to Muar, Ujong Tanah and Biawak Busuk before reaching a fishing village at the mouth of Bertam river (modern-day Malacca River). Legend has it that the king saw a mouse deer outwit his hunting dog into the water when he was resting under the Malacca tree. He thought this boded well, remarking, 'this place is excellent, even the mouse deer is formidable; it is best that we establish a kingdom here'. Tradition holds that he named the settlement after the tree he was leaning against while witnessing the portentous event. Today, the mouse deer is part of modern Malacca's coat of arms. The name "Malacca" itself was derived from the fruit-bearing Melaka tree (Malay: Pokok Melaka) scientifically termed as Phyllanthus emblica. Another account of the naming origin of Malacca elaborates that during the reign of Sultan Muhammad Shah (r. 1424–1444), the Arab merchants called the kingdom 'Malakat' (Arabic for 'congregation of merchants') because it was home to many trading communities. Growth Map of 1400s Malacca and its contemporaries. Part of a series on the History of Malaysia History of Malaysia Prehistoric Malaysia Early kingdoms Chi Tu 100 BC – 7th century AD Gangga Negara 2nd–11th century Langkasuka 2nd–14th century Pan Pan 3rd–5th century Srivijaya 7th–13th century Majapahit 13th–15th century Kedah Kingdom 630–1136 Thonburi Kingdom 1768–1782 Rise of Muslim states Kedah Sultanate 1136–present Brunei Sultanate 15th century – present Malacca Sultanate 1402–1511 Sulu Sultanate 1450–1899 Pattani Sultanate 1516–1902 Johor Sultanate 1528–present Bulungan Sultanate 1731–1881 Colonial era Portuguese Malacca 1511–1641 Dutch Malacca 1641–1824 Straits Settlements 1826–1946 Kingdom of Sarawak 1841–1946 Crown Colony of Labuan 1848–1946 British Malaya 1874–1946 North Borneo 1882–1963 Federated Malay States 1895–1946 Unfederated Malay States 1909–1946 Japanese occupation of Malaya / of Borneo 1941–1945 Syburi 1943–1945 BMA Malaya / Borneo 1945–1946 Crown Colony of Sarawak 1946–1963 Crown Colony of N. Borneo 1946–1963 Malayan Union 1946–1948 Federation of Malaya 1948–1963 Independence Independence of Malaya 1957 Malaysia Agreement 1963 Singapore in Malaysia 1963–1965 By topic Communications Military Timeline Portal icon Malaysia portal v t e Following the establishment of his new city in Malacca, Iskandar Shah initiated the development of the place and laid the foundation of a trade port. The indigenous inhabitants of the straits, the Orang Laut, were employed to patrol the adjacent sea areas, to repel other petty pirates, and to direct traders to Malacca. Within years, news about Malacca becoming a center of trade and commerce began to spread all over the eastern part of the world. In 1405, Yongle Emperor of Ming Dynasty (r. 1402–1424) send his envoy headed by Yin Qing to Malacca in 1403. Yin Qing's visit opened the way for the establishment of friendly relations between Malacca and China. Two years later, the legendary Admiral Zheng He made his first of six visits to Malacca. Chinese merchants began calling at the port and pioneering foreign trading bases in Malacca. Other foreign traders notably the Arabs, Indians, and Persians came to establish their trading bases and settle in Malacca, soaring its population to 2000. In 1411, Iskandar Shah headed a royal party of 540 people and left for China with Admiral Zheng He to visit Ming's court. In 1414, the Ming Shilu mentions that the son of the first ruler of Malacca visited Ming court to inform Yongle that his father had died. During the reign of Iskandar Shah's son, Megat Iskandar Shah (r. 1414–1424), the kingdom continued to prosper. The period saw the diversification of economic sources of the kingdom with the discovery of two tin mining areas in the northern part of the city, sago palms[disambiguation needed] in the orchards and nipah palms lining in the estuaries and beaches. To improve the defense mechanism of the city from potential aggressors, Megat Iskandar Shah ordered the construction of a wall surrounding the city with four guarded entrances. A fenced fortress was also built in the town center where the state's treasury and supply were stored. The growth of Malacca coincided with the rising power of Ayuthaya in the north. The growing ambitions of the kingdom against its neighbours and Malay Peninsula had alarmed the ruler of Malacca. In a preemptive measure, the king headed a royal visit to China in 1418 to raise his concerns about the threat. Yongle responded in October 1419 by sending his envoy to warn the Siamese ruler. Relationship between the China and Malacca were further strengthened by several envoys to China, led by the Malaccan princes in the years 1420, 1421 and 1423. Due to this, it can be said that Malacca was economically and diplomatically fortified. Between 1424 and 1433, two more royal visits to China were made during the reign of the third ruler, Raja Tengah (r. 1424–1444). During Raja Tengah's rule, it was said that an ulama called Saiyid Abdul Aziz came to Malacca to spread the teaching of Islam. The king together with his royal family, senior officials and the subjects of Malacca listened to his teachings. Shortly after, Raja Tengah adopted the Muslim name, Muhammad Shah and the title Sultan on the advice of the ulama. He introduced the Islamisation in his administration – customs, royal protocols, bureaucracy and commerce were made to conform to the principles of Islam. As Malacca became increasingly important as an international trading center, the equitable regulation of trade was the key to continued prosperity – and the Undang-Undang Laut Melaka ('Maritime Laws of Malacca'), promulgated during the reign of Sultan Muhammad Shah, was an important facet of this. So too was the appointment of four Shahbandars for the different communities of the port. This accommodated foreign traders, who were also assigned their own enclaves in the city. In 1430s, China had reversed its policy of maritime expansion. However, by then Malacca was strong enough militarily to defend itself. In spite of these developments, China maintained a continuous show of friendship, suggesting that it placed Malacca in high regard. In fact, although it was China's practice to consider most foreign countries as vassal states, including Italy and Portugal, its relations with Malacca were characterized by mutual respect and friendship, such as that between two sovereign countries. In 1444, Muhammad Shah died after reigning for twenty years and left behind two sons; Raja Kasim, the son of Tun Wati who in turn a daughter of a wealthy Indian merchant, and Raja Ibrahim, the son of the Princess of Rokan. He was succeeeded by his younger son, Raja Ibrahim, who reigned as Sultan Abu Syahid Shah (r. 1444–1446). Abu Syahid was a weak ruler and his administration was largely controlled by Raja Rokan, a cousin of his mother who stayed in the court of Malacca during his reign. The situation prompted the court officials to plan the assassination of Raja Rokan and to install Abu Syahid's older brother Raja Kasim to the throne. Both the Sultan and Raja Rokan were eventually killed in the attack in 1446. Raja Kasim was then appointed as the fifth ruler of Malacca and reign as Sultan Muzaffar Shah (r. 1446–1459). A looming threat from the Siamese kingdom of Ayuthaya became a reality when it launched a land invasion of Malacca in 1446. Tun Perak, the chief of Klang brought his men to help Malacca in the battle against the Siamese of which Malacca emerged victorious. His strong leadership qualities gained the attention of the Sultan, whose desire to see Malacca prosper made him appointing Tun Perak as the Bendahara. In 1456, during the reign of King Trailokanat, the Siamese launched another attack, this time by sea. When the news about the attack reached Malacca, naval forces were immediately rallied and a defensive line was made near Batu Pahat. The forces were commanded by Tun Perak and assisted by Tun Hamzah, a warrior by the nickname Datuk Bongkok. The two sides were ultimately clashed in a fierce naval battle. Nevertheless, the more superior Malaccan navy succeeded in driving off the Siamese, pursuing them to Singapura and forcing them to return home. Malacca's victory in this battle gave it new confidence to devise strategies to extend its influence throughout the region. The defeat of Siam brought political stability to Malacca and enhanced its reputation in South East Asia. Golden era The replica of Malacca Sultanate's palace which was built from information and data obtained from the Malay Annals. This historical document had references to the construction and the architecture of palaces during the era of Sultan Mansur Shah, who ruled from 1458 to 1477. Part of a series on the History of Indonesia Prehistory Early kingdoms Kutai 300s Tarumanagara 358–669 Kalingga 500s–600s Srivijaya 600s–1200s Sailendra 800s–900s Sunda 669–1579 Medang 752–1006 Kahuripan 1006–1045 Kediri 1045–1221 Singhasari 1222–1292 Majapahit 1293–1500 Rise of Muslim states Spread of Islam 1200–1600 Ternate Sultanate 1257–present Samudera Pasai Sultanate 1267–1521 Malacca Sultanate 1400–1511 Cirebon Sultanate 1445–1677 Demak Sultanate 1475–1548 Aceh Sultanate 1496–1903 Pagaruyung Kingdom 1500–1825 Banten Sultanate 1526–1813 Mataram Sultanate 1500s–1700s European colonisation Portuguese 1512–1850 Dutch East India Company 1602–1800 Netherlands East Indies 1800–1942 1945–1950 Emergence of Indonesia National Awakening 1908–1942 Japanese occupation 1942–1945 National Revolution 1945–1950 Independence Liberal democracy 1950–1957 Guided Democracy 1957–1965 Transition 1965–1966 New Order 1966–1998 Reformasi 1998–present Timeline Portal icon Indonesia portal v t e Malacca reached its height of glory at the beginning the middle of the of 15th century. Its territory extended from modern-day Southern Thailand in the north to most of eastern coast of Sumatra in the south after wrestling it from Majapahit and Ayuthaya sphere of influence. The kingdom conveniently controls the global trade vital choke point; the narrow strait that today bears its name, Straits of Malacca. Its port city had become the center of regional and international trade, attracting regional traders as well as traders from other Eastern civilizations such as the Chinese Empire and the Ryukyu and Western civilizations such as Persian, Gujarat and Arabs. The reign of Muzaffar Shah's son, Sultan Mansur Shah (r.1459–1477) witnessed the major expansion of the sultanate to reach its greatest extent of influence. Among the earliest territory ceded to the sultanate was Pahang, then known as Inderapura – a massive unexplored land with a large river and abundant source of gold which was ruled by Maharaja Dewa Sura, a relative of the Ayuthayan king. The Sultan dispatched a fleet of two hundred ships, led by Tun Perak and 19 Malaccan Hulubalangs ('commanders'). On reaching Pahang, a battle broke out in which the Pahangites were decisively defeated and its entire royal court were captured. The Malaccan fleet returned home with Maharaja Dewa Sura and his daughter, Onang Seri who were handed over to Sultan Mansur Shah. The Sultan appointed Tun Hamzah to rule Pahang. A policy of rapprochement with Ayuthaya was later initiated by Mansur Shah to ensure steady supplies of rice. The military prowess of the sultanate was further strengthened with nine young Pendekars who were famous for their bravery and appointed by the Sultan as Hulubalangs of the kingdom. They were Hang Tuah, Hang Jebat, Hang Kasturi, Hang Lekir, Hang Lekiu, Hang Ali, Hang Iskandar, Hang Hasan and Hang Husain. Hang Tuah, the most intelligent, skillful and brave among them, was conferred the office of Laksamana ('admiral') by the Sultan. On his royal visit to Majapahit, Mansur Shah was also accompanied by these young warriors. At that time, Majapahit was already at a declining state and found itself unable to check on the rising power of the Malay sultanate. After a display of Malaccan military prowess in his court, the king of Majapahit married off his daughter, Radin Galuh Cendera Kirana to Sultan Mansur Shah and relinquished control over Indragiri, Jambi, Tungkal and Siantan to Malacca. The friendly relations between China and Malacca escalated during the reign of Sultan Mansur Shah. The Sultan sent an envoy headed by Tun Perpatih Putih to China, carrying a diplomatic a letter from the Sultan to the Emperor. According to the Malay Annals, Tun Perpatih succeeded in impressing the Emperor of China with the fame and grandeur of Sultan Mansur Shah that the Emperor decreed that his daughter Hang Li Po should marry the Sultan. A senior minister of state and five hundred ladies in waiting accompanied the princess to Malacca. The Sultan built a palace for his new consort on a hill known ever afterwards as Bukit Cina ("Chinese Hill"). As trade flourished and Malacca became more prosperous, Mansur Shah ordered the construction of a large and beautiful palace at the foot of Malacca Hill. The royal palace reflected the wealth, prosperity and power of Malacca and embodied the excellence and distinct characteristics of Malay architecture. The brief conflict between Malacca and Lê Dynasty of Annam, began shortly after the 1471 Vietnamese invasion of Champa, then already a Muslim kingdom. The Chinese government, without knowing about the event, sent a censor Ch'en Chun to Champa in 1474 to install the Champa King, but he discovered Vietnamese soldiers had taken over Champa and were blocking his entry. He proceeded to Malacca instead and its ruler sent back tribute to China. In 1469, Malaccan envoys on their return from China was attacked by the Vietnamese who castrated the young and enslaved them. In view of Lê Dynasty's position as a protectorate to China, Malacca abstained from any act of retaliation. Instead, Malacca sent envoys to China in 1481 to report on the Vietnamese aggression and their invasion plan against Malacca, as well as to confront the Vietnamese envoys who happened to be present in the Ming court. However, the Chinese informed that since the incident was years old, they could do nothing about it, and the Emperor sent a letter to the Vietnamese ruler reproaching him for the incident. The Chinese Emperor also granted permission for Malacca to retaliate with violent force should the Vietnamese attack, an event that never happened again after that. A bronze relief of Hang Tuah, a legendary Malay hero. Exhibited at the National History Museum, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The expansionist policy of Mansur Shah was maintained throughout his reign when he later added Kampar and Siak to his realm. He also turned a number of states in the archipelago into his imperial dependencies. The ruler of such states would come to Malacca after their coronation to obtain the blessing of the Sultan of Malacca. Rulers who have been overthrown also came to Malacca requesting the Sultan's aid in reclaiming their throne. One such examples was Sultan Zainal Abidin of Pasai who was toppled by his own relatives. He fled to Malacca and pleaded with Sultan Mansur Shah to reinstall him as a ruler. Malacca armed forces were immediately sent to Pasai and defeated the usurpers. Although Pasai never came under the control Malacca afterwards, the event greatly demonstrated the importance of Malacca and the mutual support it had established among leaders and states in the region. While Malacca was at the peak of its splendour, Sultan Mansur Shah died in 1477. The prosperous era of Malacca continued under the rule of his son and pet monkey named "Abu". "Alauddin" was the being that the Disney movie was created after. Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah (r. 1477–1488) and more foreign rulers within the region began paying homage to the Sultan of Malacca. Among them were a ruler from the Moluccas Islands who were defeated by his enemies, a ruler of Rokan and a ruler named Tuan Telanai from Terengganu. Alauddin Riayat Shah was a ruler who placed a great importance in maintaining peace and order during his reign. He was succeeded by his son, Sultan Mahmud Shah (r. 1488–1511) who was a teenage boy upon his accession. Hence Malacca was administered by Bendahara Tun Perak with the help of other senior officials. The legendary Princess of Gunung Ledang was said to have lived during the reign of Mahmud Shah and once wooed by the sultan himself. The town of Malacca continues to flourish and prosper with an influx of foreign traders after the appointment of Tun Mutahir as Bendahara. This was due to his efficient and wise administration and his ability to attract more foreign traders to Malacca. By about 1500, Malacca was at the height of its power and glory. Its city of Malacca was the capital of a great Malay empire, the chief center of trade in Indian cloth, Chinese porcelain and silk and Malay spices, and the headquarters of Muslim activity in the Malay Archipelago. Malacca was still looking to expand its territory as late as 1506, when it conquered Kelantan. Portuguese invasion Main article: Capture of Malacca (1511) By the 15th century, Europe had developed an insatiable appetite for spices, ostensibly to the mask the flavour for rotten meat in the days before refrigeration. At that time, spice trade was virtually monopolised by the Venetian merchants via a convoluted trade route through Arabia and India, which in turn linked to its source in Spice Islands via Malacca. Upon becoming king in 1481, John II of Portugal determined to break this chain and control the lucrative spice trade directly from its source. This led to the expansion of Portuguese sea exploration, pioneered by Vasco da Gama, into the east coasts of India that had resulted in the establishment of Portuguese stronghold in Calicut. Years later, during the reign of Manuel I, a fidalgo named Diogo Lopes de Sequeira was assigned to analyze the trade potentials in Madagascar and Malacca. He arrived at Malacca on 1 August 1509 carrying with him a letter from the King. His mission was to establish trade with Malacca. The Tamil Muslims who were now powerful in the Malaccan court and friendly with Tun Mutahir, the Bendahara, were hostile towards the Christian Portuguese.The Gujarati merchants who were also Muslims and had known the Portuguese in India, preached a holy war against "the infidels". Unfortunately, because of the dissension between Mahmud Shah and Tun Mutahir, a plot was hatched to kill de Sequeira, imprison his men and capture the Portuguese fleet anchored off the Malacca River. The plot leaked out and de Sequeira managed to escape from Malacca in his ship, leaving behind several of his men as captives. Meanwhile, the position of the Portuguese in India was consolidated with the arrival of a new Viceroy, Afonso de Albuquerque, who conquered Goa in 1510. Having established Goa as the Portuguese eastern headquarters and naval base, de Albuquerque decided to capture Malacca and in April of 1511, left Goa with 18 ships and 1400 men, comprising both Portuguese troops and Indian auxiliaries. Upon their arrival in Malacca, the Portuguese did not attack immediately, but instead began negotiations for the return of their prisoners and sought permission to build a fortress. Malacca procrastinated, thinking it could withstand a Portuguese assault, which started three months later on 25 July 1511. The invasion was concluded on 24 August when de Albuquerque's troops, marching six abreast through the streets, swept aside all resistance. By the time they sacked the city and the palace, Sultan Mahmud Shah had already retreated. Post-1511 Portuguese Malacca Main article: Portuguese Malacca The surviving gate of the A Famosa in Malacca. Following the 1511 conquest, the great Malay city port of Malacca passed into Portuguese hands and for the next 130 years remained under Portuguese governance despite incessant attempts by the former rulers of Malacca and other regional powers to dislodge the Europeans. Around the foot hill on which the Sultan's Istana once stood, the Portuguese built the stone fort known as A Famosa, completed in 1512. Malay graves, the mosque and other buildings were dismantled to obtain the stone from which, together with laterite and brick, the fort was built. Despite numerous attacks, the fort was only breached once, when the Dutch and Johor defeated the Portuguese in 1641. It soon became clear that Portuguese control of Malacca did not mean they now controlled Asian trade that centered on it. Their rule in Malacca was marred with difficulties. They could not become self-sufficient and remained highly dependent on Asian suppliers, as had their Malay predecessors. They were short of both funds and manpower and the administration was hampered by organizational confusion and command overlap, corruption and inefficiency. Competition from other regional ports such as Johor which was founded by the exiled Sultan of Malacca, saw Asian traders bypass Malacca and the city began to decline as a trading port. Rather than achieving their ambition of dominating it, the Portuguese had fundamentally disrupted the organization of the Asian trade network. The previously centralized port of exchange that policed the Straits of Malacca to maintain its safety for commercial traffic, was replaced with scattered trading network over a number of ports rivaling each other in the Straits. The efforts to propagate Christianity which was also one of the principal aims of Portuguese imperialism did not, however, meet with much success, primarily because Islam was already strongly entrenched among the local population. Chinese retaliation "Melaka is a country which offers tribute and which has been Imperially enfeoffed. The Fo-lang-ji have annexed it and, enticing us with gain, are seeking enfeoffment and rewards. Righteousness will certainly not allow this. It is requested that their tribute be refused, that the difference between according and disobedience be clearly made known and that they be advised that only after they have returned the territory of Melaka will they be allowed to come to Court to offer tribute. If they refuse and blindly hold to their ways, although the foreign yi are not used to using weapons, we will have to summon the various yi to arms, proclaim the crimes and punish the Fo-lang-ji, so as to make clear the Great Precepts of Right Conduct" — Qiu Dao Long, the Investigating Censor of Ming, Ming Shilu, 13th January 1521 The Portuguese conquest of Malacca enraged the Zhengde Emperor of China when he received the envoys from the exiled Sultan Mahmud. The furious Chinese emperor responded with brutal force, culminating the period of three decades of prosecution of Portuguese in China. Among the earliest victims were the Portuguese envoys led by Tomé Pires in 1516 that were greeted with great hostility and suspicion. The Chinese confiscated all of the Portuguese property and goods in the Pires embassy's possession. Many of the envoys were imprisoned, tortured and executed. Pires himself was said among those who died in the Chinese dungeons. The complete extermination of the Portuguese was also carried out in Ningbo and Quanzhou. Two successive Portuguese fleets bound for China in 1521 and 1522 were attacked and defeated in the first and second Battle of Tamao. In response to Portuguese piracy and the illegal installation of bases in Fujian at Wuyu island and Yue harbor at Zhangzhou, Shuangyu island in Wenzhou, and Nan'ao island in Guangdong, the Imperial Chinese Right Deputy Commander Zhu Wang exterminated all the pirates and razed the Shuangyu Portuguese base, using force to prohibit trading with foreigners by sea. Moreover, Chinese traders boycotted Malacca after it fell under Portuguese control, with some Chinese in Java even assisting in Muslim attempts to invade the city. Successors of Malacca Further information: Perak and Johor Sultanate The exiled Sultan Mahmud Shah made several attempts to retake the capital but his efforts were fruitless. The Portuguese retaliated and forced the Sultan to flee to Pahang. Later, the Sultan sailed to Bintan and established his capital there. From the new base, the Sultan rallied the disarrayed Malay forces and organized several attacks and blockades against the Portuguese's position. Frequent raids on Malacca caused the Portuguese severe hardship. The raids helped convince the Portuguese that the exiled Sultan's forces must be silenced once for all. A number of attempts were made to suppress the Malay forces, but it wasn't until 1526 that the Portuguese finally razed Bintan to the ground. The Sultan then retreated to Kampar in Sumatra where he died two years later. He left behind two sons named Muzaffar Shah and Alauddin Riayat Shah II. Muzaffar Shah was invited by the people in the north of the peninsula to become their ruler, establishing the Sultanate of Perak. Meanwhile, Mahmud Shah's other son, Alauddin succeeded his father and established the Sultanate of Johor. Malacca was later conquered by the Dutch in a joint military campaign in January 1641. The Portuguese fortress, however, did not fall to the force of Dutch or Johorean arms as much as to famine and disease that had brutally decimated the surviving population. As a result of mutual agreement between the Dutch and Johor earlier in 1606, Malacca was handed over to the Dutch. Administration Further information: Malaysian legal history Sultan of Malacca Reign Iskandar Shah (aka Parameswara) 1400–1414 Megat Iskandar Shah 1414–1424 Muhammad Shah 1424–1444 Abu Syahid 1444–1446 Muzaffar Shah 1445–1459 Mansur Shah 1459–1477 Alauddin Riayat Shah 1477–1488 Mahmud Shah 1488–1511 1513–1528 Ahmad Shah 1511–1513 Malacca had a well-defined government with a set of laws. On top of the sultanate's hierarchy sat the Sultan and he was an absolute monarch. The earlier Srivijayan concept of kingship that the king's authority to rule was based on legitimate lineage still prevailed, and with the coming of Islam, it was reintroduced with the name daulat (sovereignty). Malacca's legal codes identified four main state officials appointed by the Sultan. Below the Sultan was a Bendahara, a position similar to that of a vizier, who acted as an advisor to the Sultan. It was the highest-ranking office that could be held by any common people in Malacca. Bendahara was also responsible for ensuring cordial relations with foreign states. Malacca's fifth Bendahara, Tun Perak, excelled in both war and diplomacy. Twice during the reign of Sultan Muzaffar Shah, Tun Perak successfully led Malaccan armed forces in repelling Siamese attacks on Malacca. When Sultan Mansur Shah ascended the throne, acting on Tun Perak's advice, he agreed to dispatch a peace envoy to Siam. Tun Perak also advised the Sultan to marry the daughter of the King of Majapahit, Malacca's traditional enemy. Next to Bendahara was a state treasurer, called Penghulu bendahari. Later comes the Temenggung which more or less a chief of public police and state security. After Temenggung, a Laksamana's authority is paramount. He was the head of the navy and also chief emissary of the Sultan. He ensured that the Malacca Straits was safe and enforced the Undang-Undang Laut Melaka ('Maritime Laws of Malacca'). Malacca's most prominent Laksamana was the legendary Hang Tuah. At the bottom of this nobility structure is the four Shahbandars ('harbour masters') for the different communities in the port - one focused exclusively on handling the affairs of the Gujarati traders; another was responsible for traders from Southern India, Bengal, Burma and Pasai; a third for traders from Maritime Southeast Asia; and fourth for traders from Annam, China and the Ryukyu Islands. As the Gujaratis were the most dominant, numbering up to 1000 traders, their Shahbandar was regarded as the important of the four. Lesser titled state officials were also appointed. They were known as the Orang Besar. In addition, a governor called the Mandulika oversaw the administration of appanages and territories annexed by conquest. The sultanate was governed with several set of laws. The formal legal text of traditional Malacca consisted of the Undang-Undang Melaka (Laws of Malacca), variously called the Hukum Kanun Melaka and Risalat Hukum Kanun, and the Undang-Undang Laut Melaka (the Maritime Laws of Malacca'). The laws as written in the legal digests went through an evolutionary process. The legal rules that eventually evolved were shaped by three main influences, namely the early non-indigenous Hindu/Buddhist tradition, Islam and the indigenous "adat". Islam and Malay culture The conversion of the first ruler of Malacca, Parameswara, to Islam was unclear so far with no evidence as to whether he had actually converted. The 16th-century Portuguese writer Tomé Pires explicitly mentioned that Parameswara was succeeded by his son, Megat Iskandar Shah, and that only the latter converted to Islam at the age 72. On the other hand, the Malay Annals noted that it was during the reign of the third ruler Muhammad Shah, that the ruling class and the subjects began accepting Islam. While there are differing views on when the Islamization if Malacca actually took place, it is generally agreed that Islam was firmly established during the reign of Muzaffar Shah. Islamisation in the region surrounding Malacca gradually intensified between the 15th and 16th centuries through study centers in Upeh, the district on the north bank of the Malacca River. Islam spread from Malacca to Jambi, Kampar, Bengkalis, Siak, Aru and the Karimun Islands in Sumatra, throughout much of the Malay peninsula, Java and even Philippines. The Malay Annals even reveals that the courts of Malacca and Pasai posed theological questions and problems to one another. Of the so-called Wali Sanga ('nine saints') responsible in spreading Islam on Java, at least two, Sunan Bonang and Sunan Kalijaga, are said to have studied in Malacca. The Portuguese apothecary and chronicler at the time of Malacca's fall, Tome Pires, in his Suma Oriental mentions that the rulers of Kampar and Indragiri on the east coast of Sumatra converted to Islam as a result of Sultan Muzaffar Shah's influence and went on to study the religion in Malacca. The Malay Annals also mentions a number of scholars who served at the Malacca royal court as teachers and counselors to the various Sultans. Maulana Abu Bakar served in the court of Sultan Mansur Shah and introduced the Kitab Darul Manzum, a theological text translated from the work of an Arab scholar in Mecca. A scholar by the name of Maulana Kadi Sardar Johan served as a religious teacher to both Sultan Mahmud Shah and his son. In addition to Kitab Darul Manzum, the Malay Annals also mentions the Kitab al-luma' fi tasawwuf ('Book of Flashes'), a 10th-century treatise on Sufism by Abu Nasr al-Sarraj. Certain elaborate ceremonies that blend Islamic traditions with local culture were also began taking shape during Malaccan era. One of the example was recorded during the reign of Muhammad Shah. A special ceremony was held that marked the celebration of the 27th nigh of Ramadan, the Laylat al-Qadr. It began with a daytime procession, led by the Temenggung on elephant-back, conveying the Sultan's prayer mat to the mosque for Tarawih performed after the mandatory night prayers. On the following day the Sultan's turban would be carried in procession to the mosque. Similar ceremonies accompanied the grand celebrations of both Hari Raya Aidilfitri and Hari Raya Aidiladha. Apparently Malaccan Malay society had become so infused with the Islamic worldview that on the eve of the fall of Malacca, warriors at the court requested copies of two Islamic heroic epics, the Hikayat Amir Hamzah and the Hikayat Muhammad Hanafiah, to inspire them in battle the next day. These two epics, still read today, tell of heroes fighting in the defense of Islam. The rise of Malacca as a center of Islam had a number of crucial implications. Firstly, Islam transformed the notion of kingship so that the Sultan was bo longer viewed as divine, but as God's Khalifah (vice-gerent on earth). Secondly, Islam was an important factor in enabling Malacca to foster good relations with other Islamic polities, including the Ottoman Empire, thereby attracting Muslim traders to Malacca. Thirdly, Islam brought many great transformation into Malaccan society and culture, and ultimately it became a definitive marker of a Malay identity. This identity was in turn enriched further through the standards set by Malacca in some important aspects of traditional Malay culture, notably in literature, architecture, culinary traditions, traditional dress, performing arts, martial arts, and royal court traditions. Over time, this common Malay cultural idiom came to characterize much of the Maritime Southeast Asia through the Malayisation. Trade Malacca's tin ingot, photo taken from National History Museum of Kuala Lumpur. Malacca developed from a small settlement to a cosmopolitan entrepot within the span of a century. This rapid progression was attributable to several factors, key among which were its strategic location along one of the World's most important shipping lanes, Malacca Straits and the increasing demand for commodities from both the East and the West. Ships from the east bearing goods from China, Ryukyu, Java and Maluku Islands would sail in by the northeast monsoon from December to January, while ships leaving for ports along Indian coastline, the Red Sea and East Africa would sail with the southwest monsoon. There were other ports along the Malacca Straits such as Kedah in the Peninsula and Jambi and Palembang in Sumatra, yet none of them came close to challenging Malacca's success as a center of international trade. Malacca had an edge over these ports because its Rulers created an environment that was safe and conducive for business. Chinese records of the mid-15th century stated that Malacca flourished as a center for trade on account of its effective security measures. It also had a well-equipped and well-managed port. Among the facilities provided for merchants were warehouses, where they could safely house their goods as they awaited favorable trade winds, as well as elephants for transporting goods to the warehouses. Malacca's management of its ethnically diverse merchant population - it is said that 84 different languages were spoken in Malacca during its heyday- is particularly telling. To administer the cosmopolitan marketplace, the traders were grouped according to region and placed under one of four shahbandars. Malacca had few domestic products with which to trade. It produced small amounts of tin and gold as well as dried fish, yet even the salt for preserving the fish had to be sourced from elsewhere in the region. Basic goods, including vegetables, cattle and fish, were supplied by Malacca's trading partners. Rice, mainly for local consumption, was imported. Much of the mercantile activity in Malacca, therefore, relied on the flow of goods from other parts of the region. Among Malacca's most crucial functions was its role as both a collection center for cloves, nutmeg and mace from the Spice Islands and a redistribution center for cotton textiles from ports in Gujarat, the Coromandel Coast, Malabar Coast and Bengal. Other goods traded in Malacca included porcelain, silk and iron from China and natural products of the Malay archipelago, such as camphor, sandalwood, spices, fish, fish roe and seaweed. From the coastal regions on both sides of Malacca Straits came forest products; rattan, resin, roots and wax, and some gold and tin. These goods were then shipped to ports west of Malacca especially Gujarat. Tin ingots were a trading currency unique to Malacca. Cast in the shape of a peck, each block weighs just over one pound. Ten blocks made up one unit called a 'small bundle', and 40 blocks made up one 'large bundle'. Gold and Silver coins were also issued by Malacca as trading currency within the kingdom. Legacy Malacca sultanate heralded the golden age of Alam Melayu and became an important port in the far east during the 16th century. It became so rich that the Portuguese writer and trader Tome Pires said "Whoever is lord of Malacca shall have his hands on the throat of Venice.". Within a span of a century, the Malay empire left a lasting and important legacy, especially within Malay culture and the History of Malaysia. Malacca was the first Malay Muslim state that achieved the status of a regional maritime power. Despite the existence of earlier Muslim kingdoms such as Kedah, Samudra Pasai and Aru, which also possessed well-established ports, none of them came close in challenging Malacca's success in expanding its territory and influence in the region. Malacca also contributed in the evolution of a common Malay culture based on Islam by incorporating native and Hindu-Buddhist ideas and layered them extensively with Islamic ideas and values. Through its traditions, laws, and royal rituals and customs, the Malaccan court set the example for later Muslim sultanates in the region to follows. Next to its role on promoting Islamic faith, Malacca is important especially for the modern nation of Malaysia as it was the first centralized polity that consolidated the entire Malay peninsula-now an important part of Malaysia- under its rule. This is contrary with the achievements of older kingdoms of the Malay Peninsula such as Kedah and Langkasuka that only exerted their influence over a significant northern portion of the peninsula. Because of these roles, Malacca is considered by many to be the spiritual birthplace of Malaysia. Malacca sultanate also emerged as the primary base in continuing the historic struggles of its predecessors, Singapura and Srivijaya, against their Java-based nemeses. By the mid 15th century, Majapahit found itself unable to control the rising power of Malacca that began to gain effective control of Malacca straits and expands its influence to Sumatra. As a major entrepot, Malacca attracted Muslim traders from various part of the world and became a center of Islam, disseminating the religion throughout the Maritime Southeast Asia. The expansion of Islam into the interiors of Java in the 15th century led to the gradual decline of Majapahit, before it finally succumbed to the emerging local Muslim forces in the early 16th century. At the same time, the literary tradition of Malacca developed the Classical Malay that eventually became the lingua franca of the region. The advent of Islam coupled with flourishing trade that used Malay as medium of communication, culminated the domination of Malacca and other succeeding Malay-Muslim sultanates in the Maritime Southeast Asia. As noted by certain scholars, the historic Malay-Javanese rivalry in the region, persists until modern times, and continues to shape the diplomatic relations between the Malaysia and the Java-based Indonesia