Tuesday, 15 April 2014

MALACCA-SULTANATE - SULTAN ALAUDDIN IBNI MANSUR SHAH 1477-1488

Alauddin Riayat Shah Sultan of Malacca Reign Malacca Sultanate: 1477 – 1488 Predecessor Mansur Shah Successor Mahmud Shah Wives Raja Fatimah(his cousin) Tun Senaja (niece of temenggung seri maharaja) Father Mansur Shah Alauddin Riayat Shah was a sultan of the Malacca Sultanate from 1477 to 1488. He was famous for going undercover at night to personally check on the well-being of his people, as well as on the condition of his sultanate itself. On one of these nights he was even reported to have run after a thief himself. He was a very good and religious ruler and is renowned to be a fair king. But his position is envied by his brother, Raja Ahmad (the ruler of Pahang, a region under Malaccan rule), because Raja Ahmad believed that the rulership of Malacca was his right. Sultan Alauddin had many enemies, both within and outside of his court. He had a total of four children, two from each of his two wives, and this has led to his wives squabbling over the heirship to his throne. The sultan's second wife is from Indian Muslim descent. During this period, Sultan Alaudin has been facing problems with the mamak people, who were beginning to grow in power in comparison to Malays. His first advisor, Bendahara Seri Maharaja (equivalent to the modern-day prime minister) was also of mamak blood. After 11 years on the throne, Sultan Alauddin was reported in history to have died of mysterious causes. Other accounts suggest that he was poisoned in a conspiracy primarily involving Raja Ahmad, Bendahara Seri Maharaja and Tun Senaja, his second wife. His son, Raja Mahmud and his brother-in-law Raja Merlang (Tun Senaja's brother) was also thought to be involved. After his demise, the rulership went to Raja Mahmud, whom he fathered with his Tun Senaja, and denying Raja Munawar, Sultan Alaudin's firstborn son with his first wife Raja Fatimah, who was widely thought to be the true successor to the throne. In any case, the mamak bloodline finally gained control over the Malaccan Empire. However, it was not long before the Portuguese invasion came in 1511, the aftermath of which ended the Sultanate rule over the Malacca.

MALACCA-SULTANATE SULTAN AHMAD IBNU MAHMUD SHAH 1510

Sultan Ahmad Shah of Malacca (died 1513) was a sultan of what is now Malaya. The son of Sultan Mahmud Shah, Ahmad Shah's rule began in 1511 when his father stepped aside. It ended in 1513 when he died during the kingdom's war with Portugal: His father stabbed him after failing the attack to conquer Malacca. He was succeeded in rule by his father. Sultan Ahmad Shah was also involved in the Putri Gunung Ledang Myth where the putri requested a bowl of Raja Ahmad's blood in order to marry her. Malacca sultanate The Sultanate of Malacca كسلطانن ملايو ملاك Kesultanan Melayu Melaka 1400–1511 ↓ The extent of the Sultanate in the 15th century Capital Malacca Languages Malay language Religion Islam Government Monarchy Sultan - 1400–1414 Iskandar Shah - 1414–1424 Megat Iskandar Shah - 1424–1444 Muhammad Shah - 1444–1446 Abu Syahid Shah - 1446–1459 Muzaffar Shah - 1459–1477 Mansur Shah - 1477–1488 Alauddin Riayat Shah - 1488–1511 Mahmud Shah - 1511–1513 Ahmad Shah Bendahara - 1400–1412 (first) Tun Perpatih Permuka Berjajar - 1445–1456 Tun Ali - 1456–1498 Tun Perak - 1500–1510 Tun Mutahir - 1510–1511 Paduka Tuan History - Established 1400 - Portuguese invasion 1511 Currency :- Tin ingot, native gold and silver coins The Malacca Sultanate (Malay: Kesultanan Melayu Melaka; Jawi script: كسلطانن ملايو ملاك) was a Malay sultanate centered in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia. Conventional historical thesis marks circa 1400 as the founding year of the sultanate by a renegade Malay Raja of Singapura, Iskandar Shah, who was also known in certain accounts as "Parameswara". At the height of the sultanate's power in the 15th century, its capital grew into one of the most important entrepots of its time, with territory covering much of the Malay Peninsula, Riau Islands and a significant portion of the east coast of Sumatra.[1] As a bustling international trading port, Malacca emerged as a center for Islamic learning and dissemination, and encouraged the development of the Malay language, literature and arts. It heralded the golden age of Malay sultanates in the archipelago, in which Classical Malay became the lingua franca of the Maritime Southeast Asia and Jawi script became the primary medium for cultural, religious and intellectual exchange. It is through these intellectual, spiritual and cultural developments, the Malaccan era witnessed the enculturation of a Malay identity,[2][3] the Malayisation of the region and the subsequent formation of an Alam Melayu.[4] In 1511, the capital of Malacca fell to the Portuguese Empire, forcing the last Sultan, Mahmud Shah (r. 1488–1511), to retreat to the further reaches of his empire, where his progeny established new ruling dynasties, Johor and Perak. The legacy of the sultanate remained, with significance lies in its far-reaching political and cultural legacy, which, arguably, continues to be felt in modern times. For centuries, Malacca has been held up as an exemplar of Malay-Muslim civilization. It established systems of trade, diplomacy, and governance that persisted well into the 19th century, and introduced concepts such as daulat – a distinctly Malay notion of sovereignty – that continues to shape contemporary understanding of Malay kingship.[

Tuesday, 25 February 2014

SULTAN MUZAFFAR SHAH II (1546-1570) - VERY RARE KUPANG JOHOR

Sultan Muzaffar Shah II (1546–1570) was the second Sultan of Johor. He was known as Raja Muda Perdana before he succeeded the throne. He was installed to the throne of Johor in 1564 by the Acehnese upon the death of his father, Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah II, who died shortly after he was captured and brought back to Aceh after the Acehnese invasion of Johor. Muzaffar II moved his capital to Seluyut in 1565 from Johor Lama to assert his independence from the Acehnese. He died in 1570 of poison and was succeeded by Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah I. PERSONAL LIFE He had three wives, which was not uncommon among Muslim rulers at the time. His first wife was Tun Mas Jiwa, daughter of the temenggung, Tun Hassan. His second wife was Tun Trang, daughter of Tun Ali, Seri Nara Diraja of Pahang and Tun Fatimah. Tun Trang bore him two sons, Abdul Jalil I and Raja Radin. His third wife was the former wife of Sultan Ali Jalla Abdul Jalil Shah II and daughter of Sultan Husain Ali Riayat Shah of Aceh.

Monday, 24 February 2014

SULTAN MAHMUD SHAH II 1685-1699- KUPANG JOHOR

Paduka Sri Sultan Mahmud Shah II ibni al-Marhum Sultan Ibrahim Shah was the 10th Sultan of Johor, Pahang and Lingga (1685 – 3 September 1699). Born in 1675, he was the last in line of a dynasty of the Sultanate of Johor (founded by his grandfather, Sultan Alauddin Ri'ayat Shah II) descended from the Sultans of Melaka (Malacca). As he was still a young boy when his father Sultan Ibrahim died (16 February 1685), Sultan Mahmud II reigned under the joint regency of his mother and the Bendahara Paduka Raja until the death of the latter (27 July 1697). He had several wives and is said to have slain any of them to have the misfortune of becoming pregnant. Perhaps this could have been the result of his fear that the birth of a son would enable rivals to depose him. After all, he himself came to power at a young age through a palace conspiracy that led to the poisoning of his father Sultan Ibrahim by his wives. Sultan Mahmud Shah II is famously known as "Sultan Mahmud Mangkat Dijulang". The name Mangkat Dijulang was given in remembrance of the way he was killed (mangkat being the Malay word referring specifically to a royal death) while being carried (dijulang) in a royal litter or dais. On his way back from Friday prayers, he was assassinated by one of his military chiefs. This military chief, Laksamana Megat Sri Rama (hailing from Bintan), was enraged The famous legend behind the murder of Sultan Mahmud Shah II is recounted in the 19th century Malay chronicle, the Tuhfat al-Nafis. Based on this story, he is mostly remembered for his decadence and cruelty, marking a shameful end to his dynasty. Sultan Mahmud was buried in a village near Kota Tinggi in Johor, which is still known today as Kampung Makam (Village of the Tomb). Legend has it that before he died, he lay a curse on Kota Tinggi, forbidding any sons of Bintan from entering the city for all time. After his death, his Bendahara (chief minister)Abdul Jalil declared himself the next Sultan of Johor. Upon ascending the throne, the new Sultan (Abdul Jalil IV) killed all the wives of Sultan Mahmud in order to avoid the possibility of any future claims to the throne. However, according to the Hikayat Negeri Johor (Chronicles of the State of Johor)and the Pahang Manuscripts, one wife, Che Mi, managed to escape to Minangkabau and gave birth to Raja Kechil. Less than two decades later in 1717, Raja Kechil would assemble a fleet from Minangkabau and succeed temporarily in ousting Sultan Abdul Jalil's successor Sultan Sulaiman and gain the Johor Sultanate, basing his legitimacy on the claim that he was the post-humous son of Sultan Mahmud Shah II. However, Bugis mercenaries that assisted him in this campaign changed sides and he was eventually forced to flee to Siak, where he founded a new Sultanate.

Sunday, 23 February 2014

SULTAN ALAUDDIN II - JOHOR KUPANG DOUBLE STRIKES

These double strikes Gold coin were impressed on the obverse Sultan Alauddin II and on the reverse with his honorific title "KHALIFATUL MUMININ". As all the Johor Gold coinge have no date. THIS IS MY BEST COLLECTION

SULTAN ABDUL JALIL III 1623-1677- KUPANG & MAS JOHOR

Abdul Jalil Shah III was the 8th Sultan of Johor who reigned from 1623 to 1677. Known as "Raja Bujang" before his accession, he was a son of the 6th Sultan, Alauddin Riayat Shah III and a niece of the 7th Sultan, Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah.[1] Ruler of Pahang and Sultan of Johor-Pahang In 1615, Alauddin Riayat Shah III signed a peace treaty with the Portuguese Malacca, and as a sign of gratitude, the Portuguese recognized Raja Bujang as the ruler of Pahang, replacing the son of Sultan Abdul Ghafur. However, the appointment was not recognized by Sultan Iskandar Muda of Acheh, which later invaded Pahang and forced Raja Bujang to flee to the islands of Lingga. At the same time, the Achehnese also waged war with the new Sultan of Johor, Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah who was also forced to flee to Lingga. As the Achehnese attacks continued, Raja Bujang and Sultan Abdullah fled once again to Tambelan archipelago. When Sultan Abdullah died in 1623, Acheh reconcile with Raja Bujang and appoint him as the new Sultan of Johor and Pahang.[2] Invasion of Malacca The strength of Acheh was brought to an end with a disastrous campaign against Malacca in 1629, when the combined Portuguese and Johor forces managed to destroy the fleet and 19,000 Achehnese troops according to Portuguese account.[3][4] Johor later grew stronger and formed an alliance with the Dutch to attack the Portuguese Malacca and conquered it on January 14, 1640, ending the triangular war. The following year in 1641, Iskandar Thani of Acheh died and succeeded by Queen Taj ul-Alam. Her reign marks the beginning of decline of Acheh position as a regional power. In 1641, Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah III moved to the mainland Johor and established his new capital in Makam Tawheed. He spent two years of his reign in Makam Tawheed before he crossed the Damar river to establish his new capital in Pasir Raja (also known as Batu Sawar) in October 1642. In 1666, Jambi, a vassal of Johor Empire emerged as a regional economic and political power and decided to break free from the empire. Between 1666-1673, a civil war erupted and Jambi successfully sacked the Johor capital in Batu Sawar in 1673. Sultan Abdul Jalil Shah III fled to Pahang and made it as his administration centre for four years before he died in Kuala Pahang in 1677.

SULTAN ABDULLAH MA'AYAT SHAH 1615-1623- KUPANG JOHOR

Sultan Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah Sultan Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah was the 7th Sultan of Johor who reigned from 1615 to 1623. Before he became sultan of Johor, Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah was also known as Raja Bongsu, Raja Seberang or Raja di Ilir. According to the testimony of Dutch Admiral Cornelis Matelief de Jonge Raja Bongsu was one of four surviving sons of Raja Ali bin Abdul Jalil (alias Raja Omar) of Johor. The other remaining male (half-) siblings were described by Admiral Matelief as Raja Siak, Raja Laut, and Alauddin Riayat Shah III.[1] The latter ruled as the 6th sultan of Johor between the death of his father Raja Ali Jalla in 1597 and the Acehnese attack on Johor in 1613. In 1603 Raja Bongsu was instrumental in forging the early diplomatic relations with the Dutch by lending assistance to Admiral Jacob van Heemskerk on 25 February 1603 in attacking and plundering the Portuguese carrack, the Santa Catarina, in the Johor River estuary off present-day Singapore.[2] He was also responsible for sending one of the first diplomatic missions of a Malay ruler to the Dutch Republic in the same year. Headed by Megat Mansur, the Johor embassy sailed to Europe on the ships of Admiral van Heemskerk in 1603. Megat Mansur did not survive the voyage, but other members of the Johor embassy did and returned with the fleet under the command of Admiral Cornelis Matelief de Jonge in 1606.[3] In that year, Raja Bongsu formally ratified two treaties with the Dutch (dated 17 May and 23 September 1606) and signed himself as the co-ruler of Johor.[4] He also lent active assistance to Admiral Matelief during his seaborne attack on Portuguese Melaka in or around May 1606. In early 1609 Raja Bongsu received Dutch Admiral Pieter Willemsz Verhoeff at Batu Sawar. On this occasion one of the German officers serving in Verhoeff's fleet, one Johann Verken, described the physical appearance of Raja Bongsu. He wrote that the Raja was "a young man in his 30s ... In his appearance and body a well-proportioned person, rather tall, articulate, and fair-skinned both on his body and on his face." [5] After the Portuguese had imposed an economically crippling blockade on the Johor River for much of the year 1609, Raja Bongsu was necessitated (through the machinations of his half-brother Raja Siak) to sign a peace treaty with the Portuguese Melaka in October 1610. Described as his personal "fiefdom" by Admiral Matelieff, Raja Bongsu controlled the settlement of Kota Seberang which was located almost straight across the Johor River from the royal administrative center and capital Batu Sawar. He is also said to have controlled areas around the Sambas River on the island of Borneo. In 1613, Raja Bongsu was one of the prisoners taken back to Aceh after the invasion of Johor by sultan Iskandar Muda. He was married to one of Iskandar's sisters, and returned to Johor as the new sultan. Raja Bongsu was subsequently enthroned as Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah of Johor. His half-brother Alauddin Riayat Shah III who had fallen from power at the time of Iskandar Muda's offensive on Johor in 1613 had fled to Lingga and probably died there in or around 1615. In 1618, Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah moved to Lingga and gained the support of Orang Laut and the Dutch to wage a war against Aceh. He later divorced his wife who was also a sister of Iskandar Muda, a move that further angered the sultan. He spent most of his reign as a wanderer, pursued from town to town and island to island by the Acehnese. He died at Tambelan archipelago on March 1623.[6]